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  1. Sound
    • begins with the vibration of an object
    • vibrations are transmitted by a medium, which is usually air
  2. Pitch
    relative highness or lowness that we hear in a sound and is determined by the frequency of its vibrations
  3. Tone
    • a sound that has a definite pitch
    • it has a specific frequency, such as 440 cycles per second
  4. Interval
    the distance in pitch between any two tones
  5. Octave
    when tones are separated by this interval, they sound very much alike
  6. Pitch Range
    the disntance between the lowest and highest tones that a voice or instrument can produce
  7. Dynamics
    the degree of loudness or softness in music
  8. Accent
    an emphasis on a tone by playing it more loudly than the tones around it
  9. Tone Color (Timbre)
    • the quality that distinguishes one instrument from another
    • it can be descrived in words such as bright, dark, mellow, rich...etc
  10. Register
    part of the total range
  11. Pizzicato
    • plucked string
    • the musician plucks the string usually using a finger on the right hand
  12. Double Stop
    a violin player plays 2 notes at ones by drawing the bow across 2 strings
  13. Vibrato
    • when a violin player produces a throbbing, expressive tone by rocking the left hand while pressing the string down
    • it causes small pitch fluctuations that make the tone warmer
  14. Tremolo
    • violinist rapidly repeats tones by quick up and down strokes of hte bow
    • can create a sense of tension when loud, or a shimmering sound when soft
  15. Harmonics
    • when a violinist plays a high-pitched tones, like a whistle
    • produced when a musician lightly touches certain points on a string
  16. Woodwind Instruments
    produce vibrations of air with a tube that traditionally was made of wood
  17. Harpischord
    keyboard instrument that has strings that are plucked by a set of plectra (little wedges of plastic, leather or quill) and are controlled by one or two keyboards
  18. Pipe Organ
    • has many sets of pipes controlled from several keyboards, including a pedal keyboard at musician's feet
    • the keys control valves from which air is blown across or through openings in the pipes
  19. Accordion
    • has free steel reeds that are controlled by a treble keyboard w/ piano keys, played by the right hand, and a bass keyboard w/ buttons played by the left hand
    • the reeds are caused to vibrate by air pressure from a bellows
  20. Tape Studio
    the main tool of composers of electronic music during the 1950's
  21. Synthesizers
    systems of electronic components that generate, modify, and control sound
  22. Rhythm
    • the flow of music through time
    • the particular arrangement of note lenghts in a piece of music
  23. Beat
    a regular, recurrent pulsation that divides music into equal units of time and can be represented by marks on a timeline
  24. Measure
    a group containing a fixed number of beats
  25. Duple/Triple Meter
    when a measure has 2/3 beats
  26. Syncopation
    when a accented note comes where we normally would not expect one (when a weak beat is accented)
  27. Tempo
    the speed of the beat
  28. Accelerando
    a gradual quickening of tempo
  29. Ritardando
    a gradual slowing of tempo
  30. Notation
    a system of writing music so that specific pitches and rhythms can be communicated
  31. Clef
    placed at the beginning of a staff to show the pitch of each line and space
  32. Dotted Note
    adding a dot to the right of a note increases its duration by 1/2
  33. Dotted Rhythm
    • a dotted note that is followed by one that is much shorter
    • it strongly emphasizes the beat
  34. Score
    shows the music for each instrumental or vocal category in a performing group
  35. Melody
    • a series of single tones ethat add up to a recognizable whole
    • moves in small intervals called steps or by larger ones called leaps
  36. Legato
    smooth, connected style
  37. Staccato
    performed in a short, detached manner
  38. Phrases
    melodies are made up of these shorter parts
  39. Cadence
    • a ending point of arrival, resting place at the end of a phrase
    • incomplete cadence: the first phrase, which sets up expectations
    • complete cadence: gives an answer and sense of finality
  40. Sequence
    a repetition of a melodic pattern on a higher or lower pitch
  41. Harmony
    the way chords are constructed and how they follow each other
  42. Consonance
    • a tone combination that is stable
    • it is a point of arrival, rest, and resolution
  43. Dissonance
    • a tone combination that is unstable
    • its tension demands onward motion to a stable chord
  44. Resolution
    a dissonance has a resolution when it moves to a consonance
  45. Tonic Chord
    • a triad built on the first note of the scale
    • main chord of the piece and most stable and conclusive
  46. Dominant Chord
    • the triad built on the fifth note of a scale, which is next in importance to the tonic
    • sets up tension that is resolved by the tonic chord
  47. Subdominant Chord
    the triad built on teh fourth note of a scale, which is next in importance to the dominant chord
  48. Key
    involves not only a central tone but also a central scale and chord
  49. Tonality
    another term for key
  50. Scale
    it is made up of basic pitches of a piece of music arranged in order from low to high or high to low
  51. Major scale
    half step in between scale degrees 3 & 4 and 7 & 8
  52. Minor Scale
    half step in between scale degrees 2 & 3 and 5 & 6
  53. Key Signature
    it indicates the key of a piece of music and consists of sharp or flat signs immediately follwing the clef sign at the beginning of the staff
  54. Chromatic Scale
    • the twelve tones of the octave
    • all the white and black keys in one octave on a piano
    • tones are all 1/2 step apart
  55. Modulation
    shifting from one key to another within the same piece
  56. Musical Texture
    refers to how many different layers of sound are heard at once, to what kind of layers they are (melody or harmony) and how they are related to each other
  57. Monophonic
    • the texture of a single melodic line without accompaniment
    • literally means "having one sound"
  58. Polyphonic
    • simultaneous performance of two or more melodic lines of relatively equal intrest produces this texture
    • literally means "having many sounds"
  59. Homophonic
    • when we hear one main melody accomanied by chords
    • attention is focused on the melody, which is suppored by sounds of subordinate interest
  60. Ternary Form
    • three part form
    • ABA (or ABA')
  61. Binary Form
    • two part form
    • AB
  62. Concert Master
    the first violinist, who sits at the conductors immediate left
  63. Dynamics (different levels)
    • pianissimo: pp: very soft
    • piano: p: very soft
    • mezzo piano: mp: moderately soft
    • mezzo forte: mf: moderately loud
    • forte: f: loud
    • fortissimo: ff: very loud
  64. Vocal Timber (female/male)
    • female: soprano, mezzo soprano, contralto
    • male: tenor, baritone, bass
  65. Tempo (levels)
    • largo: very slow; broad
    • adagio: slow
    • andante: moderately slow/walking pace
    • allegro: fast
    • vivace: lively
    • presto: very, very fast
  66. Counterpoint
    the technique of combining several lines into a meaningful polyphonic whole
  67. Style Periods
    • Middle Ages (Medieval): 450-1450
    • Renaissance: 1450-1600
    • Baroque: 1600-1750
    • Classical: 1750-1820
    • Romantic: 1820-1900
    • Modern: 1900-present
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