HWC 205 ch.1

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HWC 205 ch.1
2012-03-05 21:28:45
HWC 205 Midterm

Rene Descartes and Seventeenth Century Europe
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  1. Promethean
    In this reference, Promethean was a god who stole fire to benefit humankind. This is a reference to "Knowledge that has brought empowerment for improvement has also brought a desire for power for the sake of power." This is described as a Promethean vs Faustian struggle.
  2. Faustian
    Faustian is meant to represent the opposite of Promethean. Dr. Faustus sold his soul to the devil. This is a reference to "Knowledge that has brought empowerment for improvement has also brought a desire for power for the sake of power." This is described as a Promethean vs Faustian struggle.
  3. Edict of Nantes
    This granted France's Protestants (the Huguenots) limited rights in a predominantly Catholic country. This was one of two events that influenced Descartes life and work.
  4. Royal absolutism
    meaning the power of the ruler was supposedly unlimited except for divine law ( aka "natural law")
  5. 1648 Treaty of Westphalia
    This ended the Thirty Year War that had involved most European states and left much of the continent devastated. Rene Descartes briefly served in this war as an officer under Maximilian. This was one of two important events that influenced Descartes life and work.
  6. Sofie Brahe
    the scientific revolution produced many women astronomers. This woman was a self taught astronomer and alchemist who worked with her brother at his observatory and helped him in making the observations that helped determine elliptical orbits of the planets.
  7. Maria Winckelmann Kirch
    a German astronomer, she discovered the comet of 1702 but did not recieve recognition as its discoverer.
  8. Caroline Herschel
    this woman astronomer achieved wide fame and respect for her discoveries. She was the first woman to be recognized for discovering a comet; she discovered 7 in all. Respected astronomer throughout Europe.
  9. Margaret Cavendish
    furthed the mechanistic model in science and popularizing the work of scientific pioneers. worked with Descartes. Her scientific speculations made her an aggressive exponent of mechanism, materialism, and atomism.
  10. Emilie du Chatelet
    She, over anyone else, may have been the one who brought about the end of the dominance of French science. The lover of Voltaire. She is a classic example of the denigration and even theft of women's achievements in history.
  11. Marie Lavoisier
    scientific lady that collaborated with her husband in his findings of modern chemistry.
  12. Lady Mary Wortley Montagu
    a scientic researcher and outspoken early feminist that introduced smallpox vaccination to Britian and Western Europe.
  13. Maria Sybille Merian
    entomologist and scientific artist that wrote books on insects and illustrated them with her own engravings.
  14. Baroque esthetic
    This new style of art reveled in expression of movement, the freedom of form and ornamentation especially it its adornments of palaces, gardens, church architecture, and music.
  15. Salons
    run by wealthy and influential women, these fostered an ongoing desire for widening the scientific community and opening the elite to new ideas.
  16. Skepticism
    fed the rise of science and a renewed interest in the ethical dimension of human society. Subjective experience was a permanent influence in 17th century though and writing.
  17. provisional moral code
    in part 3 of Descartes' Discourse on Method he describes how he formulated a code. He did not intend to apply his method of radical doubt to the government or his religion.
  18. cogito
    After doubting everything he possible could, Descartes finds the one thing he cannot. He cannot doubt that he is doubting, which is a form of thinking. The proposition "I think, therefore I am" is his foundational truth. This is one of the most famous statements in philosophy and it is called ________
  19. "stove heated room"
    in part 2 of Descartes' Discourse on Method he discusses when he formulated his project for rethinking the foundations of knowledge. This was a visionary experience in which the ideas came to him with the force of revelation. The next night he had dreams that seemed to convey the divine seal of approval to his project.