Immunizations and Vaccine Preventable Diseases

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Immunizations and Vaccine Preventable Diseases
2012-01-30 20:14:03
Immunizations Vaccines

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  1. Documentation
    • day, month, year
    • manufacturer, expiration date, lot number
    • person, title, address where given
    • site and route
    • evidence of informed consent
  2. Best sites for injection
    • Vastus Lateralis
    • Ventrogluteal
    • Deltoid; after 18-24 months
  3. Antitoxin
    Passive immunity developed from animals
  4. Incubation
    Period from when body exposed to infections before symptoms become apparent
  5. Intravenous Immune Globulin (IVIG) (IG)
    Antibodies from large groups of people
  6. Prodromal
    Usually very communicable period of infection with non-specific symptoms
  7. Hepatitis B (viral)
    • first vaccine
    • main reason for liver failure in kids
    • Spread by all bodily fluids
    • 90% of infants infected perinatally
    • IM injection given 3-4x, usually started w/i 1st month after birth
    • If mom is positive for the antigen, HbsAg or status is unknown, then baby is given an active vaccine and passive vaccine (HBIG) at least 12 hours after birth
    • incubation: 120 days
  8. Haemophilus influenzae type B (HIB) (bacterial)
    • Greatest morbidity from birth to 4 years
    • can cause bacterial meningitis, epiglottitis, bacterial pneumonia, septic arthritis, sepsis
    • given IM in a series of 3-4 vaccines, usually starts at 2 months
    • often given in a combo vaccine; cannot be given before 6 weeks
    • tx: multiple antibiotics
  9. Diphtheria, Tetanus toxoids and acellular Pertussis (DTaP)
    • IM given in a 5 vaccine series starting at 2 months (2,4,6,18 and 5 years)
    • Boosters are given when the child is between 11-12 years and 2-5 years between last vaccine for rest of life
    • may cause mild reactions: fever, mm. aches, chills, fatigue
  10. Diphtheria (bacterial)
    • spread via respiratory and skin secretions
    • prodromal symptoms: common cold to a thick, purulent nasal and pharynx discharge; cannot breathe/suffocate/has an odor
    • complications: myocarditis, neuritis, setpic shock
    • incubation: 2-5 days
    • contagious: 2-4 weeks
    • tx: penicillin and erythromycin
  11. Tetanus (bacterial)
    • thrives in anaerobic conditions: puncture wound, umbilical chord, burns, drug users
    • complications: tonic spasms, respiratory paralysis, ridgidity of the voluntary mm., esp neck and lower jaw (caused by the toxins acting on the myoneural junction); first sign on an infant is if they cannot suck
    • tx: Penicillin and Erythromycin; TIG (Tetanus immune globulin)
    • incubation: 3 days-3 weeks
  12. Pertussis (bacterial)
    • contagious for up to 4 weeks after onset of cough
    • dry hacking cough; worse at night; kids under 6 months may not have this "whooping" cough
    • complications: myocarditis, pneumonia, failure to thrive or dehydration
    • tx: Erythromycin
    • incubation: 5-21 days
  13. Polio (viral)
    • originally given orally, but no longer b/c of assoc. risks
    • SQ of 4-5 series @ 2 months
    • symptoms: flu like all the way to paralysis
    • complications: muscular atrophy syndrome, respiratory arrest, permanent paralysis, or kidney problems
    • tx: no meds or gamma globulin; treat symptoms
    • incubation: 5-35 days
    • communicability: source not exactly known; up to 6 weeks in feces
  14. Pneumococcal (bacterial)
    • IM or SQ @ 2 months
    • 4 or 5 vaccine series
    • protections against Streptococcus pneumoniae: otitis, pneumonia, meningitis, and septicemia
    • tx: antibiotics
  15. Rotavirus
    • most common cause of severe infant diarrhea
    • worldwide source of infant death
    • 2-3 vaccines @ 2 months
    • oral (live virus)
    • tx: hydration
  16. Measles, Mumps and Rubella (MMR)
    (virus ALL)
    • SQ
    • 3 vaccines; 2 are not done until after 12 months; maternal antibodies will interfere with immune response
  17. Measles AKA Rubeola
    • passed via respiratory secretions, blood and urine
    • Koplik spots (small irregular red spots with bluish white centers in back of mouth or near molars); Rash (starts at the face and goes downward for 7-14 days); eye sensitivity to light
    • sesonal: winter and spring; targets infants and adolescents
    • complications: Otitis media, pneumonia, cornea ulcerations and encephalitis
    • tx: IVIG (intravenous immunoglobulin)
    • incubation: 10-20 days
    • communicability: 4 days before to 5 days after rash
    • starts off w/flue like symptoms and fever
  18. Mumps
    • source: saliva
    • flu-symptoms and fever for 24 hours and then --> jaw and ear pain (parotid gland)/swelling in the scrotum (males)
    • complications: dehydration, deafness, encephalitis, myocarditis, and male sterility; hard to drink, feel like you cant swallow
    • tx: hydration; prevent dehydration
    • incubation: 14-21 days
    • communicability: 1 week before lymph swelling
  19. Rubella AKA German Measles
    • spread thru respiratory secretions, blood, urine and stool
    • seasonal: spring; esp school age and adolescents
    • complications: greatest danger is teratogenic effect (esp. fetal deafness) on fetus when pregnant women get disease
    • incubation: 14-21 days
    • communicability: 7 days before and 5 days after rash (usually lasts about 3 days)
    • starts w/flu like symptoms
  20. Varicella AKA Chicken Pox (viral)
    • most contagious the day before lesions break out
    • macule, papule, vesicles and scab lesions can all be present at the same time
    • immuno suppressed children especially at risk
    • SQ
    • complications: bacterial infections from lesions, encephalitis, herpes zoster (shingles), Reye's Syndrome
    • tx: anti-viral meds and VZIG (varicella-zoster); skin care
    • incubation: 2-3 weeks
    • communicability: 1 day before symptoms and up to 6 days after vesicles crust
    • itching can be severe; starts in warm area (genitals, armpits)
    • starts w/flu like symptoms
  21. Hepatitis A (viral)
    • IM
    • given after 1st year and at least 6 months apart
    • spread via fecal-oral route; contaminated food/water
    • carriers shed virus 2-3 weeks before symptoms appear
    • complications: liver failure
    • incubation: 15-50 days, shedding of virus 2-3 weeks before symptoms
    • jaundice is rare
    • in children under 6 years, symptoms may be asymptomatic
  22. Mennigococcal (MCV4)
    • offers protections against 4 serogroups of Neisseria meningitidis (bacterial)
    • # of vaccines depends on risk level and at what age started
    • start @ 2-3 years
    • tx: antibiotics
  23. Human Papillomavirus
    • Recommended for preteens
    • Females: Bivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine (VHPV)
    • Males: Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine (QHPV)

    • can be transmitted from male to femal and vice versa
    • could prevent 70% cervical cancer and 90% of genital warts