Bio Sat2 ch2

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  1. Unicellular
    An organism made up of only one cell
  2. Multicellular
    An organism made up of more than one cell
  3. Cell wall
    The outer layer of plant, bacteria and fungi cells.
  4. Cell membrane
    • The selectively permeable boundary layer of cells.
    • Made of a lipid bilayer .
    • Hydrophilic ends and hydrophobic center.
  5. Cytoplasm
    Contains and circulates organelles.
  6. Nucleus
    Control center of the cell which contains genetic material and is bound by a double membrane.
  7. Chromosomes
    Genetic material inside the nucleus.
  8. Plants
    Have cell walls made of cellulose
  9. Bacteria
    Have cell walls made of peptidoglycan
  10. Peptidoglycan
    • Made of protein and carbohydrates.
    • Forms bacteria cell walls.
  11. Fungi
    Have cell walls made of chitin
  12. Chitn
    Polysaccharide that forms fungi cell walls
  13. Aqueous
    • Watery
    • The inside of a cell membrane is aqueous
  14. Semipermeable
    • Allows some things through, and for some it doesn't .
    • Ex. The cell Membrane
  15. Diffusion
    Material moving from high to low concentration, or with/down the concentration
  16. Facilitated diffusion
    Hydrophobic material must pass through the proteins in a cell membrane.
  17. Active transport
    The cell must use energy to move material from low to high concentration.
  18. Bulk Transport
    • The cell needs to take in a large items so it engulfs it.
    • A vesicle forms to transport the items into the cell.
  19. Endocytosis
    Bulk transport into the cell.
  20. Exocytosis
    Bulk transport out of the cell.
  21. Vesicle
    A pocket formed to transport material during bulk transport.
  22. Osmosis
    • The movement of water down the concentration gradient across a membrane.
    • Water cannot go through the membrane because it is, obviously, hydrophilic.
    • So water goes across the cell membrane through facilitated diffusion.
  23. Hypertonic
    • More particles outside the cell. ie: salt
    • Less Water outside the cell.
    • Causes water to leave the cell, and the cell shrivels up and dies.
  24. Hypotonic
    • Less Particles outside the cell. ie: salt.
    • More water outside the cell.
    • Causes the cell to swell and burst.
  25. Isotonic
    Perfectly balanced concentrations inside and out of the cell.
  26. Eukaryotic
    Having membrane bound organelles.
  27. Prokaryotic
    A cell that dose not have membrane bound organelles.
  28. Vacuole
    Organelle for storage of wastes and other material.
  29. Ribosomes
    Sites of Protein synthesis; not bound by a membrane.
  30. Smooth Endoplasmic reticulum
    System of membrane and tubes that transports substances around the cell.
  31. Rough Endoplasmic reticulum
    • Endoplasmic reticulum with ribosomes bound to it.
    • Ribosomes on the rough ER specifically synthesize, membrane proteins like channels, or secreted proteins.
  32. Golgi Aperatus
    Sorts and packages proteins made by ribosomes on rough ER.
  33. Mitochondria.
    • Function in cellular respiration.
    • Produce ATP for the cell.
    • Bound by double membrane.
  34. Lysosomes
    Digest foreign substances and worn-out organelles.
  35. Centrioles
    Help to form spindle fibers during mitosis.
  36. Nucleus
    • Control center of the cell.
    • Contains genetic material (DNA).
    • Bound by a double membrane.
  37. Nucleolus
    • Small, dense structure in the nucleus.
    • Site of ribosome synthesis.
  38. Enzyme
    A protein used to break down substances.
  39. Catalyst
    • A substance that makes a chemical reaction occur faster.
    • An enzyme.
  40. Active Sites
    The places where the reactants bind to the enzyme.
  41. Substrates
    • Reactants in an enzyme-catalyzed reaction.
    • The thing being broken down.
  42. Denatured
    • An enzyme loses its shape.
    • Can be cause from heat.
  43. Coenzymes
    Molecules that help enzymes work faster, and sometimes they are necessary for a reaction to occur.
  44. Vitamins
    • Vitamins a coenzymes.
    • They helped the body function properly and perform chemical reactions.
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Bio Sat2 ch2
2012-02-10 01:10:31
Bio Sat2 Chapter

Cell Structure
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