Subsystems (of an organization)
Internal, recurring processes (systems) that perform essential functions. Example: Walmart supply-line management subsystem. Generic types: 1) management (responsible for strategy, structure, planning, direction, coordination, budgeting, development, capacity, security & success); 2) production / technical (converts inputs into outputs, such as ore into metal); 3) infrastructure (maintains current & future capacity, including human resources, information, physical facilities, and existing processes); 4) boundary-spanning (manages external interactions – across the boundary: marketing & sales, procurement, purchasing, logistics, supply-line management, shipping, distribution, waste disposal, lobbying); and 5) adaptive (monitors the environment, gathers intelligence, identifies needed operational changes, develops new processes & products, as in R&D, product development, industrial espionage). See differentiation; integration; organization structure.