Head and Neck

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Author:
Omidancer1
ID:
131914
Filename:
Head and Neck
Updated:
2012-02-09 09:31:26
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Head Neck
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Head and Neck
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  1. Omohyoid
    • Origin: Superior border of scapula near suprascapular notch
    • Insertion: Inferior border of hyoid bone
    • Innervation: Cervical plexus
    • Main Actions: Depresses hyoid
  2. Platysma
    • Superior Attachment: Inferior border of mandible, skin, and subcutaneous tissues of lower face
    • Inferior Attachment: Fascia covering superior parts of pectoralis major and deltoid muscles
    • Innervation: Cervical branch of facial nerve (CN VII)
    • Main Actions: Draws corners of mouth inferiorly and widens it as in expressions of sadness and fright; draws skin of neck superiorly when teeth are clenched
  3. Suprahyoid Muscles
    • Anterior digastric
    • Posterior digastric
    • Stylohyoid
    • Mylohyoid
    • Geniohyoid
  4. Infrahyoid Muscles
    • Sternohyoid
    • Sternothyroid
    • Thyrohyoid
    • Omohyoid (superior belly)
  5. Anterior Digastric
    • Origin: digastric fossa of mandible
    • Insertion: Intermediate tendon to hyoid bone
    • Innervation: Mandibular nerve (CN V3)
    • Main Actions: Depresses jaw, elevates hyoid
  6. Posterior Digastric
    • Origin: Mastoid notch
    • Insertion: Intermediate tendon to hyoid bone
    • Innervation: Facial nerve (CN VII)
    • Main Actions: Depresses jaw, elevates hyoid
  7. Stylohyoid
    • Origin: Styloid process
    • Insertion: Body of hyoid bone
    • Innervation: Facial nerve (CN VII)
    • Main Actions: Elevates hyoid
  8. Mylohyoid
    • Origin: Mylohyoid line of mandible
    • Insertion: Mylohyoid raphe and body of hyoid
    • Innervation: Mandibular nerve (CN V3)
    • Main Actions: Elevates hyoid
  9. Geniohyoid
    • Origin: Inferior mental spine of mandible
    • Insertion: Body of hyoid
    • Innervation: CP and CN XII
    • Main Actions: Elevates hyoid
  10. Sternohyoid
    • Origin: Manubrium and medial end of clavicle
    • Insertion: Body of hyoid bone
    • Innervation: Cervical plexus
    • Main Action: Depresses hyoid
  11. Sternothyroid
    • Origin: Posterior surface of manubrium
    • Insertion: Oblique line of thyroid lamina
    • Innervation: Cervical plexus
    • Main Action: Depresses hyoid
  12. Thyrohyoid
    • Origin: Oblique line of thyroid cartilage
    • Insertion: Inferior border of body and greater horn of hyoid
    • Innervation: CP and CN XII
    • Main Action: Depresses hyoid
  13. Longus Colli
    • Attachments: Bodies C1-C3 --> TPs C3-C5 --> Bodies C5-T3
    • Innervation: C2-C6 spinal nerves
    • Main Actions: Flexes cervical vertebrae; allows slight rotation
  14. Longus Capitis
    • Inferior Attachment: TPs C3-C6
    • Superior Attachment: Basilar part of occipital bone
    • Innervation: C2-C3 spinal nerves
    • Main Actions: Flexes head
  15. Masseter
    • Origin: Zygomatic arch
    • Insertion: Angle and lateral ramus of mandible
    • Innervation: CN V3
    • Main Action: Elevates and protrudes mandible; deep fibers retrude mandible
  16. Temporalis
    • Origin: Temporal fossa
    • Insertion: Ramus of mandible and coronoid process
    • Innervation: CN V3
    • Main Actions: Elevates mandible; posterior fibers retrude mandible
  17. Lateral Pterygoid
    • Origin: Greater wing of sphenoid, lateral pterygoid plate
    • Insertion: neck of mandible, articular disc, and capsule of TMJ
    • Innervation: CN V3
    • Main Actions: Acting together, protrude mandible and depress chin; acting alone and alternately, produces side-to-side movements
  18. Medial Pterygoid
    • Origin: Medial surface of lateral pterygoid plate
    • Insertion: Medial surface of mandible near angle
    • Innervation: CN V3
    • Main Actions: Elevates mandible; acting together, protrude mandible; acting alone, protrudes side of jaw; acting alternately, produces grinding motion
  19. Orbicularis Oculi
    • Area: around eye
    • Innervation: Facial nerve (CN VII)
    • Main Actions: blinking, winking
  20. Orbicularis oris
    • Area: around mouth
    • Innervation: Facial nerve (CN VII)
    • Main Actions: Closes and protrudes lips (e.g. purses them during whistling)
  21. Buccinator
    • Area: inside cheek
    • Innervation: Facial nerve (CN VII)
    • Main Actions: Presses cheek against molar teeth, thereby aiding chewing; makes "fish face"
  22. Zygomaticus major and minor
    • Area: corner of mouth up to cheekbone
    • Innervation: Facial nerve (CN VII)
    • Actions: help smile
  23. Depressor anguli oris
    • Area: corner of mouth down to mandible
    • Innervation: Facial nerve (CN VII)
    • Actions: pulls corners of lips down
  24. Levator anguli oris
    • Area: corner of mouth up towards eye
    • Innervation: Facial nerve (CN VII)
    • Actions: raises corners of mouth
  25. Depressor labii inferioris
    • Area: lower lip down and out to mandible
    • Innervation: Facial nerve (CN VII)
    • Actions: lowers lower lip (show teeth)
  26. Levator labii superioris
    • Area: upper lip up towards eye
    • Innervation: Facial nerve (CN VII)
    • Actions: raises upper lip
  27. Risorius
    • Area: from corner of mouth straight back
    • Innervation: Facial nerve (CN VII)
    • Actions: pulls corners of lips out
  28. Procerus
    • Area: between eyebrows
    • Innervation: Facial nerve (CN VII)
    • Actions: pulls eyebrows together
  29. Nasalis
    • Area: over bridge of nose
    • Innervation: facial nerve (CN VII)
    • Actions: flares nostrils
  30. Frontalis
    • Area: above eyebrows
    • Innervation: Facial nerve (CN VII)
    • Actions: moves eyebrows
  31. Posterior triangle of neck
    • SCM --> trapezious --> clavicle
    • Contains: scalenes; splenius; levator scapulae; omohyoid (inferior belly); brachial plexus
  32. Anterior triangle of neck
    • SCM --> midline of neck --> across mandible
    • Contains: suprahyoid mm. and infrahyoid mm.; submandibular triangel; submental triangle; carotid triangle; muscular triangle
  33. Submandibular triangle of neck
    • Borders: digastric m. and inferior border of mandible
    • Contains:
    • submandibular gland
    • hypoglossal nerve
    • facial artery
  34. Submental Triangle of neck
    • Borders: anterior digastric m., hyoid bone, anterior neck
    • Contains:
    • mylohyoid
    • anterior jugular vv.
  35. Carotid triangle of neck
    • Borders: Posterior digastric m., omohyoid m., SCM (posterior)
    • Contains:
    • carotid a.
    • internal jugular v.
    • vagus n.
    • thyrohyoid m.
  36. Muscular Triangle of neck
    • Borders: omohyoid, anterior neck, SCM (anterior)
    • Contains:
    • sternohyoid
    • sternothyroid
    • thyroid gland
  37. Cervical Plexus
    • Branching and merging of ventral rami
    • Includes: muscular (motor): phrenic, ansa cervicalis; cutaneous (sensory): lesser occipital, transverse cervical, greater auricular, supraclavicular
  38. Ansa cervicalis
    • "loop of the neck" loops halfway down neck over carotid sheath.
    • Innervates: infrahyoid muscles
    • motor
  39. Nerve point in neck
    point at which cutaneous nerves of CP get to superficial point
  40. Transverse Cervical n.
    runs in and innervates skin across front of neck (anterior triangle)
  41. Greater Auricular
    Runs straight up from nerve point. Innervates front portions of ear
  42. Lesser Occipital n.
    Runs from nerve point up behind ear onto occipital bone. Innervates skin over occipital bone
  43. Supraclavicular n.
    • from nerve point down to clavicle
    • Innervates skin over clavicle and shoulder region
  44. Cervical Sympathetic Trunk
    over longus capitis. Carries sympathetic innervation to head
  45. Horner's syndrome
    synpathetic trunk destroyed on one side. On one half of face: can't sweat (anhydrosis); pupils permanently constricted (miosis); drooping eyelid (ptosis)
  46. Bell's palsy
    paralysis of only part of face due to damage to ony some branched of facal n.
  47. Parotid gland
    • Salivary gland
    • in front of ear
    • innervated by glossopharyngeal n. (CN IX)
    • duct goes anteriorly and then through buccinator
    • infection site of mumps
  48. Submandibular gland
    • salivary gland
    • under jaw
    • innervated by facial nerve
  49. Sublingual gland
    • salivary gland
    • under tongue
    • innervated by facial nerve
  50. Tongue
    • one big muscle
    • innervated by hypoglossal n. (CN XII) - L and R
    • damage to one side of CN will cause tongue to protrude to damaged side
  51. Bregma
    • site of anterior fontanelle (last to close)
    • joining of frontal and parital bones
  52. Lambda
    • site of posterio fontanelle
    • joining of parietal bones and occipital bone
  53. Pterion
    • joining frontal, parietal, temporal, and sphenoid bones
    • weakest spot in skull
    • middle meningeal artery just deep to it
    • fracture at this spot can lead to laceration of middle meningeal a. --> epidural hematoma --> death if not caught soon enough
  54. Bones of orbit
    • Frontal
    • Maxilla
    • Ethmoid
    • Sphenoid
    • Zygomatic
    • Lacrimal
    • Palatine

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