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location where information is kept, as in a storehour or memory store/ the thing that holds the contents of experience as in memory trace or engram
any change in the potential od people to alter their behavior as a consequence of experience.
- the whole is different than the sum of its parts.
- Complex mental representations and process have a qualoty that is different from the component parts that make it up.
Behaviorism (john watson)
- behavior you can observe and record.
- Verbal Learning: Stimulus and Recollection?
- Early neuroscience: Lashly; reported the idea that memories are distributed throughout the cerebral cortex. Right hemisphere recognizes faces.
Cognitive Revolution/Renaissance: 1960's
Machine analogy used to describe how mind works (like a computer).Constructed of parts.Each part serves a specific functionWorks on imput from environment
The ANALOGY: Mental processes begin with external input.Leads to subsequent operations. Allow organism to accomplish some function
Memory: A contribution to experimental psychology (1885)
- Nonsense syllables:Used concept of association to explain memory
- Association: if a
- member of an associated group appears...The association is automatically activated. And then leads to appearance of other associated members
- Learning Curve:
- More practice you have on a task, the better you are on it. Learning when up rapidly at first, and then it slowed down
- Forgetting Curve:
- Memory would decline the longer amount of time he went without studying.
- reinforces memory tray and makes it stronger
- Savings: if you had concepts you used to know, youll pick it up faster if you try to learn it again.
- Opposite of ebinghaus.
- Memory: not associative, more a reconstructive process. Remembering involves reconstructing info from fragments stored in memory
- Schema: expectant/general idea of a situation. Mental shortcut
- 1st expierment: people add stereotypical characteristics to a situation they can barely recall to fit the "jist"
- Telephone game like.
Prior knowledge influenced memory.
first academics to descrive memory retrieval problems and have a distinction between primary and secondary memory
- Standard model of memory.
- Four primary components: sensory registers, short term store, LT store, and control processes.
Sensory registers: collection of memory stores. each store coressponds to a diff sensory modality (visual, auditory, haptic).
Triarchic Theory of Memory
- Episodic( autonoetic).
- Semantic (noetic)- it requires conscious awareness.
- Procedural(anoetic)- doesnt require conscious awareness.
Declaritive memory (explicit)
- refers to meory that are easy for a person to articulate.
- Episodic, semantic.
Non declarative memory (implicit)
- Info in long term meory that is difficult to articluate.
- Procedural, classical conditioning and priming.
fuzzy trace theories
memory often uses miltople sources rather than a single source on nearly any memory task
mental activity does not occur in a vacuum but is grounded in the type of worlds our bodies inhabit. thought is affected by how we interact with the world.
- acetylcholine: memory can improve and helps form new memory.
- dopamine: movement and in parkinsons it has a low level
- STM to LTM.
- helps in new learning.
- part of the limbic system
- Sea horse shaped.
- well designed for episode-specific conjunctions
- Anger emotions.
- limbic system.
- processes emotional aspects and is almon shaped.
- unconscious procedural memory
- habits like nail biting.
- important for control of voluntary muscle movement.
diencephalon (thalamus and hypoth)
- for conscious factual knowledge.
- controls neurotransmitters.
- procedural memory and motor activity
- complex motor control
- least involved in memory.
- visual processing
sensory and spatial.
- auditory processing
- meaning of words
- helps identify objects.
- where long term memory is stored and is bad when subject to damage
- retriece relative info
- plan activity
- binding bits of info
- takes effort
- is remembered better
- explicit memorization
- just happens to learn.
- no effort.
levels of processing
the degree to which ppl elaborate on information during study
- when ppl try to learn they simply repeat the information over and over.
- recall doesnt improve with this.
the more ppl think about the meaning od info the more likely that are to use knowledge they already have to come up with an answer
dual code theory
mulitple retrieval pathways.