anatomy ch2

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strider123
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131977
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anatomy ch2
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2012-01-31 09:08:08
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anatomy
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ch2 pp cell structure
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  1. nLight microscopy (LM)
    • oLimit of resolution ~0.2 µm (200 nm) (~ x 1,000)
    • oStudy organs, tissues, cells
    • oTwo dimensional
  2. nTransmission electron microscopy (TEM)
    • oLimit of resolution ~1.0 nm (~ x 50,000)
    • oStudy cell structures
    • oTwo dimensional
  3. nScanning electron microscopy (SEM)
    oThree dimensional image
  4. Metric system
    • o1,000 nm = 1 µm
    • o1,000 µm = 1 mm
    • o10 mm = 1 cm
    • o1,000 mm = 1 m
    • o100 cm = 1 m
    • o1,000 m = 1 km
    • o2.5 cm = 1 inch (English system)
    • oAverage sheet of paper = 96.5 µm, or 0.0038 inches
  5. Cell sizes
    • oRed blood cells (rbc’s) are a ubiquitous reference, ~7.5 µm
    • o“typical cells” are ~20-50 µm in diameter
  6. A prototypical (standard) cell’s major constituents
    • oPlasma membrane
    • oCytoplasm
    • oNucleus
  7. Plasma membrane (PM)?
    • oA.k.a. cell membrane, plasmalemma
    • oSemipermeable membrane between interior of cell and extracellular (interstitial) fluid (ECF)
    • oComponents
    • nLipids
    • nProteins
    • nCarbohydrates
  8. Membrane lipids
    • oPhospholipids
    • nAmphipathic
    • oPolar phosphate head (water soluble, hydrophilic)
    • nPolar = uneven distribution of charge
    • oNonpolar lipid tail (water insoluble, hydrophobic)
    • oPhospholipid bilayer
    • oSeparates extracellular and intracellular fluids
  9. Membrane proteins
    • oIntegral proteins – embedded within the phospholipid bilayer.
    • nMay form hydrophilic channels or transporters across membranes
    • nMay include receptors
    • oCell-cell recognition
    • oSignal transduction
    • oPeripheral proteins – on inner or outer membrane surface
  10. Transport across plasma membranes
    • oPassive transport
    • nDoes not require energy (ATP)
    • nFrom high concentration to low concentration (down concentration gradient)
    • oActive transport
    • nRequires energy (ATP)
    • nMovement against concentration gradient
  11. Passive transport
    • oSimple diffusion – movement from high to low concentration until equilibrium is reached
    • nSmall and/or nonpolar molecules (O2,CO2)
    • oOsmosis – diffusion of water (e.g., in salty water rbc’s will shrink)
    • oFacilitated diffusion – use of transporter proteins, e.g., glucose diffusion
    • o
  12. Active transport
    • oTransport against a concentration gradient (from low to high concentration) requiring ATP
    • oIon pumps – e.g., for Na+, K+, Ca++
    • oBulk transport
    • nExocytosis of secretory vesicles (secretion)
    • nEndocytosis
  13. Endocytosis
    • oPhagocytosis – pseudopodia extend and engulf a particle
    • oPinocytosis – incorporation of droplets of ECF
    • oReceptor-mediated endocytosis – receptors bind specific molecules for more efficient uptake
  14. Major structural components of cells
    • oPlasma membrane
    • oCytoplasm
    • oNucleus
  15. Cytoplasm
    • oCytosol (cytoplasmic matrix, intracellular fluid) – water + solutes
    • oOrganelles
    • nMembrane-bound – ER, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, mitochondria
    • nNonmembrane-bound – ribosomes, cytoskeleton, cilia & flagellae, microvilli
    • oInclusions
    • nStorage droplets, usually nonmembrane-bound
    • nPigment, glycogen, triglycerides
  16. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
    • oRough ER (rER)
    • nCisternae + ribosomes
    • nProtein synthesis
    • oCell export (secretion)
    • oMembrane insertion
    • oLysosomes



    • oSmooth ER (sER)
    • nCisternae w/o ribosomes
    • nSynthesis of lipids, metabolism of carbohydrates,
    • detoxification
  17. Golgi apparatus (Golgi complex)
    • oCisternae
    • oProtein modification, intracellular transport and packaging, sorting
  18. Lysosomes
    • oMembrane-bound sacs
    • nFormed by Golgi apparatus (enzymes made in rER)
    • nContain digestive enzymes to break down waste products and ingested material (enzymes: proteins that catalyze (facilitate) metabolic reactions)
  19. Mitochondria
    • oOuter and inner membrane
    • nCristae
    • nMatrix
    • nContain mitochondrial DNA (maternal)
    • oMitochondria produce ATP (adenosine triphosphate – contains high energy chemical bond)
  20. Ribosomes
    • oMade of RNA (ribonucleic acid)
    • oMade in nucleus (nucleolus)
    • oResponsible for protein synthesis
  21. Cytoskeleton
    oProteins arranged as microfilaments, intermediate filaments, or microtubules; functions - movement, shape.
  22. Actin cytoskeleton
    • oActin microfilaments made visible by ultraviolet fluorescence
    • oNote the network of actin fibers
    • oActin seen in skeletal muscle cells
  23. Cilia & flagella
    • oBoth cilia and flagella are composed of microtubules surrounded by cytoplasm and plasma membrane
    • nCapable of movement, consuming ATP
    • oCilia are numerous and are on the surface of some body cavities; transport mucus (e.g., trachea)
    • oFlagella occur only
    • on sperm
    • oVisible with LM
    • (light microscope)
  24. Microvilli
    • oComposed of cytoplasm and plasma membrane in the shape of numerous, thin fingers (Fig 26.15e)
    • oMuch smaller than cilia
    • nNot visible with LM
    • Increase surface area for absorption (not motile
  25. Nucleus
    • oStructure
    • nNuclear envelope – double membrane structure around nucleus (DNA)
    • oNuclear pores allow movement between nucleus and cytoplasm
    • Nucleoli – site of synthesis of RNA for ribosomes (dark staining; visible with LM)
  26. Chromosomes
    • oChromatin and chromosomes – DNA and proteins
    • oDuring cell division (mitosis), DNA molecules condense into tightly packed chromosomes
    • oDNA=deoxyribonucleic acid
  27. The cell cycle
    • oInterphase + mitosis
    • oInterphase DNA: heterochromatin
    • oMitosis DNA: chromosomes
  28. Mitosis (mitotic cycle)
    • oProduces two identical daughter cells (clones)
    • nGrowth and development
    • nReplacement of tissue
    • nTissue repair
    • oInterphase – cell growth, DNA replication
    • oProphase – DNA forms chromosomes
    • oMetaphase – chromosomes line up
    • oAnaphase – chromosomes divide and separate
    • oTelophase – two new cells begin to develop
    • oCytokinesis – cell division
    • o
    • o
  29. Cancer
    • oFaulty control of mitosis
    • oUncontrolled cell division
    • oMalignant neoplasms – uncontrolled cell growth that spreads (metastasis)
    • oCancer cells trigger new blood vessel formation - angiogenesis

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