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Social-Cognitive Learning Theory
Introduced by Albert Bandura. States that ehavior is learned primarily through observing others as well as trial and error.
Form of learning in which voluntary responses are strengthened or weakened by positive or negative consequences.
Approach of development that encompasses how we interact and understand one another as well as how we understand ourselves.
John B. Watson
- Advocate of behavioral approach of psychology. Theorized that if the
- enviroment was controlled, a person's behavior can be modified to
- virtually any outcome.
Erikson's eigth stages of development
- 1. Trust v. Mistrust 2. Autonomy v. Shame 3. Initiative v. Guilt 4.
- Industry v. Inferiority 5. Identity v. Role Diffusion 6. Intimacy v.
- Isolation 7. Generativity v. Stagnation 8. Ego-integrity v. Despair
Freud's five stages of development
1. Oral 2. Anal 3. Phallic 4. Latency 5. Genital
Where one uses their current stage of understanding to perceive and understand a new experience.
When a person changes their way of thinking due to an encounter with new stimuli or events.
Organized mental patterns that represent behaviors and actions.
Piaget's theory of Cognitive Development
- Suggested that the quality as well as the quantity of information chages
- as people further develop. Stated that understanding of the world is
- seen through assimilation and accommodation.
Humanistic approach to development
- Rejects the notion that behavior is determined by unconscious thoughts
- and instead suggests that everyone is born with free will. This approach
- has to deal with how people acheive self-actualization.
- Considers the relationship between a person and their physical,
- cognitive, social, and personal worlds. This perspective attempts to
- unmesh people from the rich cultural surroundings in order to understand
- the person better.
What are the five levels of the bioecological approach and who came up with them?
- Urie Bronfenbrenner identified five levels of enviroment that have
- different effects on development. These are: 1. Microsystem 2.
- Mesosystem 3. Exosystem 4. Macrosystem 5. Chronosystem
- Most traditional work in child development has been directed at this
- level. This level is comprised of the family, school, church groups and
- neighborhood peers.
- Provides connections between various aspects of the microsystem. It
- acknowledges the indirect influences that bind us to one another, such
- as when parents have a bad day at the office and then are short-tempered
- at home.
- This encompasses the societal institutions that can directly impact a
- person's life such as the community, local government, the media and
- places of worship.
- These are the larger cultural influences on a person. These are more
- abstract, such as society in general, types of government that a person
- lives in, religious and political value systems, and other broad
- influences. Such examples would be the level of importance society
- places on family or education and what identity a person has to a
- subcultural group.
- underlies each of the previous systems and how the passage of time
- chages the forementioned systems and therefore, the development of the
Information Processing Theory
- Holds that like computers, children have a limited capacity of
- information they can process. As they develop, these children have
- increasingly more sophisticated and efficient ways of processing
- informtion. Aso known as neo-Piagetian theory.