Pathology

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bridgetstadum
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132042
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Pathology
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2012-01-31 16:51:25
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  1. Pathology
    Science deals with changes in body's structure and function
  2. Study of changes in structure of body that are readily seen with unaided eye as result of disease
    Gross Pathology
  3. Surgical Pathology
    Study of tissue specimens excised surgically in major/minor operations; classifies diseases of organs and areas of body
  4. Clinical Pathology
    Study of disease by means of body secretions, excretions and other body fluids performed in lab in diagnosis of disease
  5. Study of changes in body functions due to disease
    Physiological Pathology
  6. Medico-legal pathology also known as
    Forensic Pathology
  7. Medico-legal pathology
    Study of injury or disease as relates to law; violent and unnatural death and scientific and criminal investigation
  8. Deals with study of widespread processes of disease such as inflammation without reference to particular organs
    General Pathology
  9. Special Pathology
    Deals with specific features of disease in relation to particular organs or organ systems
  10. Autopsy (necropsy)
    Post mortem examination of organs and tissues of body to determine cause of death or pathological condition
  11. Why autopsies important
    • Medicine may more closely approach exact science
    • Corrections of diagnosis be proved/disproved
    • Assist in medico-legal cases
    • Amplify or reject clinical diagnosis
    • Help physicians avoid repeating errors in diagnosis and therapy
    • Aid in medical education
    • Determine cause of death if unknown, unattended or of suspicious nature
    • Give family peace with information
  12. Specific pathological structure or functional changes (or both) brought about by disease
    Physiological Pathology or Clinical Pathology ??
  13. To recognize nature of a disease or term denoting the name of the disease or syndrome
    Diagnosis
  14. Prognosis
    Prediction; forcast of outcome of disease
  15. Subjective disturbances caused by disease that are felt or experienced by patient but not directly measurable
    Symptoms; pain or nausea
  16. Signs
    Objective disturbances produced by disease, observable; can be seen, detected, measured; soars, redness, inflammation
  17. Exacerbation
    Increase in severity of disease
  18. Remission
    Temporary cessation of manifestations of disease
  19. Presents itself after birth
    Acquired disease
  20. Existing at time of birth or shortly thereafter
    Congenital disease
  21. Recurrent
    Reappearing symptoms, after period of remission
  22. Idiopathic
    Unknown cause
  23. Rapid onset - short duration
    Acute
  24. Deficiency
    Lack of some essential element necessary for health; enzyme, protein, vitamin, antibody
  25. When genetic characteristics are transmitted from partents to kids, these characteristics are said to be____
    Hereditary
  26. Disease continuously present in community
    Endemic
  27. Epidemic
    Higher than normal numbers
  28. Pandemic
    Epidemic at worldwide porportions
  29. Disease that occurs occasionally in random or isolated manner
    Sporadic
  30. Qualities that might transmit a disease, you are said to be____
    Infected
  31. Hypersensitivity to substance that does not normally cause a reaction
    Allergies
  32. Term associated with fever
    Febrile disease
  33. Occupational disease
    Abnormally higher rate of occurrence in members of certain workforce
  34. Poisoned
    Intoxicated
  35. Difference between functional and organic disease
    • Functional - no apparent organic cause (psychosomatic)
    • Organic - change in anatomy, organic cause (microorganism, injury)
  36. Harboring of animal parasites, especially those you can see such as ticks and mosquitoes
    Infestation
  37. Communicable disease
    May be transmitted directly or indirectly from one person to another; due to infectious agent or toxic products produced by it
  38. Slow onset - long duration
    Chronic
  39. Syndrom
    Set of signs and symptoms associated with particular disease (Down's Syndrome
  40. When symptoms of disease are decreased
    Remission
  41. Unfavorable condition arising during course of disease
    Complication
  42. Condition is iatrogenic
    Results from activity of physicians; adverse result of treatment by physician or surgeon
  43. Nosocomial
    Infections acquired in hospital
  44. Rapid and severe onset - usually fatal
    Acute disease
  45. Manner in which disease develops
    Pathogenesis
  46. Number of cases of disease present in specified population at given time
    Prevalence
  47. Mortality rate
    Number of deaths in given time or place in proportion to deaths population
  48. Morbidity rate
    Relative incidence of disease in population or number of cases in given time at given population
  49. Cause of a disease
    Etiology
  50. Predisposing conditions to development of disease
    Age, race, nutrition, sex, occupation, environment, emotional status, economic status, genetics
  51. Excitatory (immediate) causes of disease
    Trauma, physical agents, chemical agents, infectious agents, deficiency of essential substances, allergens, heredity
  52. Degeneration
    Deterioration or impairment of organ or part in structure of cell and substance of which they are a part
  53. Process of seepage or diffusion into tissues of substances that are not normally present
    Infiltration
  54. Three types of cellular infiltration
    Pigmentation, Calcification, Gout
  55. Pigmentation
    Degeneration in which affected cells develop an abnormal color
  56. Difference between endogenous and exogenous pigmentation
    • Endogenous - from INSIDE cell
    • Expgenous - from OUTSIDE cell
  57. Pathological death of tissue still part of living organism
    Necrosis
  58. Caseous
    Cheeselike
  59. Ischemic necrosis - putrefaction =
    Dry Gangrene
  60. 3 types of Gangrene
    • Moist - wet, veins obstructed (cannot drain)
    • Gas - infected by gas bacillus
    • Dry - (ischemic necrosis) tissues dry and drop off, arteries obstructed
  61. Clacification
    Deposition of calcium salts in tissues
  62. Atrophy
    Wasting, decrease in size of organ or tissue
  63. Hypertrophy
    Enlargement of organ or part due to increase in size of cells composing it
  64. Conditions may be physiological, pathological or compensatory
    Hypertrophy
  65. Replacement of damaged cells with identical cells
    Regeneration
  66. Defect or deformity
    Malformation or Anomaly
  67. Malformations
    Spina bifida, Hypoplasia, Aplasia
  68. Spina bifida
    Any structural or functional disorder present at birth, may be genetically determined or result of environmental factors during gestation period
  69. Underdevelopment of tissue organ or body part
    Hypoplasia
  70. Aplasia
    Failure in development of tissue or organ
  71. Polydactylism
    Having one or more extra fingers or toes
  72. Congenital absence of one or more limbs
    Amelia
  73. Cleft palate
    Congenitally malformed palate with fissure along midline
  74. Nevus in which superficial blood vessels are enlarged
    Vascular nevus
  75. Tissue reaction or injury marked by localized heat, redness, swelling, pain and altered funtion
    Inflammation
  76. Redness
    Rubor
  77. Swelling
    (Edema) Tumor
  78. Pain
    Dolor
  79. Heat
    Calor
  80. Four characteristics above + altered function known as _____ of inflammation
    Cardinal (Classical) Signs
  81. Main causes of inflammation
    • Microbial infections
    • Physical agents
    • Chemicals
    • Necrotic tissue
    • Immunologic reactions
  82. Disease wherein body's own immune system is pathogenic mechanism
    Autoimmune
  83. Abscess
    Localized accumulation of pus in any part of body that is surrounded by swelling
  84. Known as open sore or lesion of skin and mucous membrane accompanied by sloughing of inflamed necrotic tissue
    Ulcer
  85. Vesicle
    Small blister-like elevation of skin containing serous fluid
  86. Carbuncle
    Abscess spreading subcutaneousley with multiple surface openings
  87. Furuncle
    Abscess or pyogenic infection of sweat gland or hair follicle
  88. Small elevation of skin containing pus
    Pustule or Pimple
  89. Exudate
    Inflammatory extra vascular fluid that has high protein concentration, much cellular debris, and specific gravity above 1.020
  90. Purulent or Suppurative
    Containing or a formation of pus
  91. Hemorrhagic
    Loosing blood in mass amounts
  92. Repair
    Physical or mechanical restoration of damaged or diseased tissue by growth of healthy, new cells; not necessarily same type
  93. Regeneration
    Replacement of cells that are irreversibly injured and undergo necrosis by cells of similar type and function
  94. Termination of inflammatory response and affected part returns to normal
    Recuperation

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