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  1. Adaptation
    · A biological or behavioral trait that increases a population’s chance for survival in a specific environment
  2. Thales
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    • Proposed origin of life from gradual change
  3. Aristotle
    · All living things could be placed on a scale of nature· The scale was a ladder of complexity and life did not change
  4. Linnaeus
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    • Swedish botanist that tried to classify all of life· Thought his system would show the diversity of “God’s work”
  5. Cuvier
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    • Father of Paleontology· The deeper he found fossils the more dissimilar they were to life today· Cuvier believed that each strata was represented by a catastrophe (catastrophism)
  6. Hutton
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    • Geologist who believed that the Earth was shaped gradually (gradualism)
  7. Lyell
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    • Also a geologist, who adds that the geological processes have not changed over time (uniformitarianism)
  8. Lamarck
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    • The more an animal used a structure the more it improved; unused structures waste away· Ideas were disproved because individuals cannot evolve
  9. Darwin
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    • Started studying medicine, but quit to study theology· Spent time on the HMS Beagle traveling and documenting many species· Published On the Origin of Species by means of Natural Selection in 1859· Book does not talk about human evolution
  10. Wallace
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    • Similar conclusions as Darwin· Convinced Darwin to publish
  11. Population Genetics
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    • Populations evolve, not individuals
  12. Gene Pool
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    • The total aggregate of genes in a population· If evolution is occurring, then changes must occur in the gene pool of the population over time
  13. Sources of Variation
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    • Sexual Reproductiono Random Assortment of Chromosomeso Random Fertilizationo Crossing Over· Mutation
  14. Hardy Weinberg Principle
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    • Developed in 1908· Mathematical mode of gene pool changes overtime· 5 factors to maintain an equilibrium· p + q = 1 (p is frequency of dominant allele) (q is recessive allele)· p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1o p2- frequency of homozygous dominanto 2pq- frequency of heterozygouso q2- frequency of homozygous recessive
  15. 5 Factors for hardy weinberg principle
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    • Random mating· Large population· No movement into or out of population· No mutations· No natural selection
  16. Causes of failure of hardy weinberg not working
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    • Non random· Genetic drift· Gene flow· Mutations· Natural selection
  17. Nonrandom Mating
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    • Failure to choose mates at random· Inbreeding· Assortative mating- similar parts· Sexual selection- males compete, females pick
  18. Causes of nonrandom mating
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    • Sexual dimorphism· Secondary sexual features for attracting mates
  19. Genetic Drift
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    • In a small population some alleles will become more common by chance
  20. Bottleneck Effect
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    • Loss of most of the population by disasters· Surviving population have a different gene pool than the original population· Results in:o Some alleles losto Other alleles are over representedo Genetic variation usually losto Reduce of population size may reduce gene pool for evolution to work witho Ex: cheetahs
  21. Founders Effect
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    • Genetic drift in a new colony that separates prom a population· Results in:o Genetic variation reducedo Some alleles increase in frequency while other are lost
  22. Gene Flow
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    • Movement of genes in/out of a population· Changes in gene frequencies within a population· Immigration often brings new alleles into populations increasing genetic diversity· Ex: immigration
  23. Mutation
    · The source of new alleles in a population
  24. Natural Selection
    · Organisms with traits favorable for their environment are more likely to survive, reproduce, and pass on the favorable traits to offspring
  25. Fitness- Darwinian
    · The relative contribution an individual makes to the gene pool of the next generation
  26. Rate of Selection
    · Differs between dominant and recessive alleles· Selection pressure by the environment
  27. Stabilizing
    1. - selection toward the average and against the extremes
  28. Directional
    selection toward one extreme
  29. Diversifying/ Disruptive
    1. selection toward both extreme and against the norm· Can split a species into several new species if it continues for a long enough period of time and the populations don’t inbreed
  30. Four Models of Natural Selection
    • Stabilizing
    • Directional
    • Diversifying/ Disruptive
    • Sexual
  31. Biogeography
    · The geographical distribution of life· Species tend to be more similar to species that live close instead of animals that share a niche in another part of the world
  32. Fossils
    · Any evidence of past life· There is clear evidence of species that no longer exist· Fossils appear in the record in a predictable pattern based on complexity· Transitional fossils that exist show how life has changed· Few fossils are actually whole organisms· Some environments are more conductive to producing fossils than others
  33. Dating Fossils
    · Early scientists compared strata to determine relative ages of organisms· Now science can use radioactive dating
  34. Comparative Embryology
    · The more closely related two organisms, the more similar their biochemistryo Similar enzymes/hormoneso Use of ATPo DNA function
  35. Comparative Biochemistry
    · The more closely related two organisms, the more similar their biochemistryo Similar enzymes/hormoneso Use of ATPo DNA function
  36. Comparative Anatomy
    • · Many different species have similar structures
    • Homologous Structures
    • Analogous Structures
    • Vestigial Structures
  37. Homologous Structures
    - structure or characteristic with similar function found in different species; thought to be inherited from common ancestor
  38. Analogous Structures
    characteristic shared by different species that is similar in function, but not inherited from a common ancestor
  39. Vestigial Structure
    · structure of characteristic that is unused but which is similar with structures or characteristics in other species, suggesting common ancestry
  40. Comparative Evolution
    · Process by which analogous traits arise· Usually from evolving under similar pressures
  41. Evolution
    · From Evolvere —Latin “an unrolling”— The changes in populations over long periods of time; the change in the proportions of different alleles in a population from one generation to the next
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