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  1. Sequent occupance:
    The notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints ona place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape. This is an important concept in geographybecause it symbolizes how humans interact with their surroundings.
  2. Cultural landscape
    : Fashioning of a natural landscape by a cultural group. This is the essence of how humans interactwith nature.
  3. Arithmetic density
    : The total number of people divided by the total land area. This is what most people think of as density;how many people per area of land.
  4. Physiological density
    : The number of people per unit of area of arable land,which is land suitable for agriculture. This is important because it relates to how much land is being used byhow many people.
  5. Hearth:
    The region from which innovative ideasoriginate. This relates to the importantconcept of the spreading of ideas from one area to another (diffusion).
  6. Diffusion:
    Theprocess of spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time.
  7. Relocation diffusion:
    The spread of an idea through physical movement ofpeople from one place to another. Ex: spread of AIDS from NewYork, California, & Florida.
  8. Expansion diffusion:

    -Hierarchical diffusion:

    -Contagious diffusion:

    -Stimulus diffusion:

    • Expansion diffusion: The spread of a feature from one place to another in a
    • snowballing process. This can happen in
    • 3 ways:

    • -Hierarchical diffusion: The spread of an idea from persons or nodes of
    • authority or power to other persons or places (Ex: hip-hop/rap music)

    • -Contagious diffusion: The rapid, widespread diffusion of a characteristic
    • throughout the population. (Ex: ideas placed on the internet)

    • -Stimulus diffusion: the spread of an underlying principle, even though a
    • characteristic itself apparently fails to diffuse. (Ex: PC & Apple
    • competition, p40)

  9. Absolute distance:

    Relative distance:
    Absolute distance: Exact measurement of the physical space between two places.

    Relative distance: Approximate measurement of the physical space between two places.
  10. Environmental determinism:
    A 19th- and early 20th-centuryapproach to the study of geography that argued that the general laws sought byhuman geographers could be found in the physical sciences. Geography was therefore the study o f how thephysical environment caused human activities.
  11. Site:
    Thephysical character of place; what is found at the location and why it issignificant (For more on Site & Situation, see p.16).
  12. Situation:
    Thelocation of a place relative to other places. (For more on Site &Situation, see p.16).
  13. Space Time Compression-
    The reduction in the time it takes to diffusesomething to a distant place,as a result of improved communications and transportation system.
  14. Friction of Distance-
    is based on the notion that distanceusually requires some amount of effort, money, and/or energy to overcome.Because of this "friction," spatial interactionswill tend to take place more often over shorter distances; quantity ofinteraction will decline with distance.
  15. Distance
    The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenonwith increasing distance from its origin. Typically, the farther away one group is from another, the less likely the two groups are to interact. (Electronic devices such as the internet and e-mail have aided ineliminating barriers to interaction between people who are far from each other.
  16. Formal Region- (uniform)

    Functional Region- (nodal region)

    Vernacular Region- (Perceptual Region)
    • Formal Region- (uniform) or homogenous
    • region is an area within which everyone shares in common one or mare
    • distinctive characteristics. The shared
    • feature could be a cultural value such as a common language, or an
    • environmental climate.

    • Functional Region- (nodal region) Area organized around a node
    • or focal point. The characteristic
    • chosen to define a functional region dominates at a central focus or node and
    • diminishes in importance outward. This
    • region is tied to the central point by transportation or communication systems
    • or by economic or functional associations.

    • Vernacular Region- (Perceptual Region) is a
    • place that people believe exists as a part of their cultural identity. Such regions emerge from peoples informal
    • sense of place rather than from scientific models developed through geographic
    • thought. (Often identified using a mental map- which is an internal
    • representation of a portion of Earths surface)
  17. Possibilism-
    The physical environment may limit some humanactions, but people have the ability to adjust to their environment.
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