Von Thunen, Johann Heinrich –
1826, NorthernGermany. When choosing an enterprise, acommercial farmer compares two costs; cost of the land versus the cost oftransporting production to market. Identifies a crop that can be sold for morethan the land cost, distance of land to market is critical because the cost oftransporting varies by crop. Also found that specific crops were grown in varyingrings around city. Market-oriented gardens and milk producers in first ring,because of expense of transportation and perishability. In the next rings woodlots used for construction and fuel, because it is a heavy industry with hightransportation costs. Next rings are used for various crops or pasture, withthe outermost ring devoted to animal grazing. Von Thunen’s theory disregardssite or human factors.