Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Lipoprotiens

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corbin19
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13208
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Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Lipoprotiens
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2010-04-08 09:56:30
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MLT 10005
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carbs, lipids, liprotiens
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  1. This is the main energy source for the human body, provides the body with basic fuel.
    Carbohydrates
  2. _______ is the universal energy source for biological reactions.
    ATP
  3. chemical formula for glucose.
    C6H12O6
  4. what are the four different properties that classifications of carbohydrates are based on?
    • Size of the base carbon chain
    • Location of the C=O
    • Stereochemistry of the compound
    • Number of sugar units
  5. aldehyde as its functional group
    aldose
  6. ketone as its funtional group
    ketose
  7. this is a straight chain or cyclic, hemiacetal form
    fisher group
  8. this is more representative or the actual carbohydrate structure.
    haworth
  9. when two carbohydrate molecules split, one molecule of water is used to form individual compounds.
    hydrolysis
  10. the bond between monosaccharides is called what?
    glycoside linkage
  11. simple sugars such as glucose, fructose, and glactose that contain 3-6 carbons are called what?
    monosaccharides
  12. what are the only carbohydrates that can be absorbed into the bloodstream through the intestinal lining?
    monosaccharides
  13. which three monsaccharides share the same molecular formula?
    • glucose
    • galactose
    • fructose
  14. This type of carbohydrate contains 2-10 monosaccharides, most are reducing sugars.
    oligosaccharides
  15. these sugars also called double sugars are formed on the interaction of groups between 2 monosaccharides with the production of water molecule.
    disaccharides
  16. this disaccharide is a common table sugar; it is a combination of glucose and fructose.
    sucrose
  17. what is the enzyme required to hydrolyze lactose?
    lactase
  18. these are long chains (10 or more) of carbohydrates also know as complex carbohydrates; they are present in most grain products
    polysaccharides
  19. This polymer of glucose is used by plants to store glucose; most common sources are rice, beans, corn etc.
    starch
  20. this polymer of glucose is used by animals to store energy
    glycogen
  21. what is the most common non reducing sugar?
    sucrose
  22. synthesis of all compounds needed by the cells is know as what?
    anabolism
  23. breakdown of all molecules to obtain eneregy is know as what?
    catabolism
  24. A protein molecule that functions as an organic catalyst to speed a chemical reaction without itself being affected by the reaction.
    Enzyme
  25. What is the enzyme reponsible for the digestion of disaccharides?
    amylase
  26. what is the only carbohydrate to be directly used for energy or stored as glycogen?
    Glucose
  27. within the cell glucose is rapidly converted to __________ a major intermediate in glucose metabolism that serves as a starting point for 4 metabolic pathways.
    glucose-6-phosphate
  28. what is the metabolism of glucose to either pyruvate or lactate for production of energy?
    Glycolysis
  29. _____ and _________ are required to convert glucose to glucose-6-phosphate.
    • ATP
    • hexokinase
  30. two pyruvate molecules the dominant product of what type of glycolysis?
    Aerobic
  31. In this type of glycolysis oxygen is depleted and lactate is the dominant product.
    anaerobic
  32. a biochemical pathway that breaks down acetyl CoA, producing CO2, H+, NADH, FADH2, and ATP.
    • Ticarboxylic Acid
    • (kreb cycle or Citric Acid Cycle)
  33. what is the waste product that diffuses out of the cell?
    CO2
  34. The Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle accounts for how many immediate ATP molecules?
    two
  35. What is the glycolytic pathyway also know as?
    the Embden-Meyerhof Pathway
  36. where does the electron transport chain occur?
    in the mitochondria
  37. How does the Electron Transport Chain work?
    • Electrons move down the chain
    • Carriers are reduced and then oxidized
    • Energy is captured and used to form ATP
  38. how may ATP molecules does one glucose molecule yield?
    36-38
  39. what type of glycolysis can cause muscle fatigue, pain, cramps, and soreness?
    anaerobic glycolysis
  40. This is a detour of G6P from the glycolytic pathway to become 6-phosphogluconic acid.
    hexose monophosphate shunt
  41. 6-phosphogluconic acid leads to the formation of what?
    NADPH
  42. This is used for the synthesis of fatty acids and stgeroids for tissues such as mammary glands, adipose tissue, adrenal cortex, and the liver.
    NADPH
  43. this helps RBC's protect the RBC cell membrane from the damaging effects of oxidants and free radicals.
    NADPH
  44. This is the conversion of glucose to glycogen for storage.
    glycogenesis
  45. This is the breakdown of glycogen to glucose for use as energy.
    glycogenolysis
  46. what are the major depots of glycogen?
    liver and skeletal muscle
  47. what is the process called when the liver will synthesize glucose from lipids or proteins?
    gluconeogenesis
  48. this the the primary hormone responsible for the entry of glucose into cells; it is the only hormone that produces a decrease in blood glucose levels.
    insulin
  49. insulin is produced by the _____ cells of the islet of langerhans in the pancreas.
    beta
  50. what hormone is referred to as a hypoglycemic agent?
    insulin
  51. this is the primaryt hormone responsible for increasing glucose levels; referred to as hyperglycemic agent
    glucagon
  52. glucagon is secreted by the ______ cells of the islet of langerhans in the pancreas.
    alpha
  53. This hormone produced by the adrenal medulla increases plasma glucose by inhibiting insulin secretion durring stress.
    epinephrine
  54. This hormone is secreted by the anterior pituitary and increases plasma glucose by inhibiting glucose uptake by the tissues.
    somatotropin
  55. this hormone is secreted by the thyroid gland and increases plasma glucose by increasing intestinal absorption of glucose.
    Thyroxine (T4)
  56. This hormone is produced by the delta cells in the islet of langerhans and increases plasma glucose by inhibiting insulin, glucagon, growth hormone and other endocrine hormones.
    Somatostatin
  57. reference range for plasma glucose levels
    70-110 mg/dL
  58. What are some laboratory findings associated with hyperglycemia
    Increased:
    Decreased:
    • Increased: Glucose, SG, Osmolality, ketones
    • Decreased: pH
  59. A group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defect in insulin secreastion, action, or both.
    diabetes mellitus
  60. an genetically related absolute deficiency of insulin secretion that commonly occurs in children
    type one diabetes
  61. polydipsia, polyhphagia, polyuria, rapid weight loss, hyperventilation, mental confusion, and loss of consciousness are all signs ans symptoms of what?
    type one diabetes
  62. nephropathy, neuropathy, retinopathy and increased risk of heart disease are all complications of what?
    type one diabetes
  63. This is a result of individual's resistance to insulin, with an insulin secretory defecet.
    type two diabetes
  64. in what type of diabetes is ketoacidosis more likely?
    Type one diabetes
  65. Chances of developing this are increased in patients that are obese and live sedentary lifestyles.
    type two diabetes
  66. Elevated blood sugar due to certain hormones that occur only durring pregnancy.
    gestational diabetes mellitus
  67. Four diagnostic criteria for gestational DM
    • women older than 25
    • overweight
    • family history
    • ethnicity
  68. This test where a 50-g glucose load is given to a patient is called O'Sullivan-Mahan glucose challenge test
    1-hour postload
  69. if 1-hour postload glucose results are ______ perform a 3hr OGTT using 100g glucose.
    >/= 140 mg/dL
  70. GDM is diagnosed when two of the following four values are met or exceeded durring 3hr OGTT.
    • Fasting >105 mg/dL
    • 1hr >/= 190 mg/dL
    • 2hrs >/= 165 mg/dL
    • 3hrs >/= 145 mg/dL
  71. If a patient has a fasting glucose level >200 mg/dL how is diabetes mellitus confirmed?
    test patient on a subsequent day using a different method
  72. normal reference value for 2-hr OGTT
    <140 mg/dL
  73. this is life threatening because the brain and cardiac cells depend on glucose in the blood and interstitial fluid.
    hypoglycemia
  74. what is the most common congenital form of glycogen storage disease?
    • G6PD type 1
    • also called Von Gierke disease
  75. This disease causes hypoglycemia because glycogen builds up in the liver and cannot be coverted back to glucose; transplantation is needed to correct hypoglycemia.
    Glycogen storage disease
  76. this is a deficiency of galactose-1-phosphate uridyl tranferase that if left untreated will result in metal retardation and cataracts.
    galactosemia
  77. in this failure to thrive condition galactose must be removed from the diet.
    galactosemia
  78. This is the most specific glucose measurement.
    glucose oxidase test
  79. uric acid, bilirubin, and ascorbic acid can cause falsely decreased values in what test?
    glucose oxidase test
  80. bleach and other oxidizing substances can falsely increase values of what test?
    Glucose oxidase
  81. This is the reference method of glucose measurement where gross hemolysis and extremely elevated bilirubin may cause false decrease in results.
    hexokinase method
  82. glucose concentration in whole blood is approx. ____ lower than in serum or plasma.
    15%
  83. normal reference range for serum glucose
    Fasting:
    Post meal:
    • Fasting: 70-100 mg/dL
    • Post meal: 130-160 mg/dL
  84. normal reference range for CSF glucose.
    40-70 mg/dL
  85. This is a non specific test based on copper reduction used to ID reducing substances.
    clinitest/benedicts modification
  86. this test is reccomended by the ADA to determine endogenous insulin response.
    GTT
  87. This is the screening test for glucose utilization where patients take 75mg of glucola
    2-hr post pardinal
  88. the most reliable test method for monitoring long term diabetes control
    HgbA1c
  89. what is the specimen of choice for HgbA1c?
    EDTA whole blood
  90. what is the normal value of HgbA1c?
    4.5-8.0%
  91. this is a powerful detector for the future development of diabetic nephropathy.
    microalbuminuria
  92. __________ is confirmed when two specimens collected within a six month period are elevated.
    micoralbuminuria
  93. these are products of incomplete fat metabolism.
    ketones
  94. Any heterogeneous group of fats and fat-like substances that is water-insoluble and extractable by solvents such as alcohol.
    Lipids
  95. these are a rich source of energy and an efficient way for the body to store excess calories
    lipids
  96. these are linear chains of carbon-hydrogen bonds that terminate with a carboxyl group; most have an even number of carbons.
    Fatty Acids
  97. what type of fatty acid has no double bonds.
    saturated
  98. what type of fatty acid has one double bond.
    monounsaturated
  99. what type of bond has two or more double bonds.
    polyunsaturated
  100. This allows for compact energy storage within the body and contains a glycerol+3 fatty acids.
    triglycerides
  101. this provides insulation to vital organs in form of fat deposits in adipose tissues.
    triglycerides
  102. Which two hormones promote triglyceride breakdown.
    • epinephrine
    • cortisol
  103. this unsaturated steroid alcohol is found exclusively in animals and is not readily catabolized by most cells.
    cholesterol
  104. This manufactures and repairs cell membranes and is a precursor of 5 major classes of steroid hormones.
    cholesterol
  105. This is an amphipathic compound formed by the conjungation of two fatty acids and a phosphate functional group.
    phospholipids
  106. Any of the lipid-protein complexes in which lipids are transported in the blood stream.
    lipoproteins
  107. these are used to transport lipids through the bloodstream and increase solubility of lipids.
    lipoproteins
  108. what are the 5 types of lipoproteins?
    • Chylomicrons
    • Very Low Density Lipoproteins (VLDL)
    • Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL)
    • High Density Lipoproteins (HDL)
    • Lipoprotein (a)
  109. These are a major carrier of exogenous triglycerides produced by the intestines
    chylomicrons
  110. these readily float to the top of stored plasma and form a creamy layer due to its lightness.
    chylomicrons
  111. These are major carries of endogenous triglycerides produced by the liver.
    Very Low Density Lipoproteins
  112. This lipoprotein contains 50% cholesterol by weight and are responsible for transporting cholesterol from the liver to the bloodstream and peripheral tissues. It is also know as "bad cholesterol"
    Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL)
  113. These are the smalles and most dense lipo proteins that take excess cholesterol from the tissue and return it to the liver. it is also know as "good cholesterol"
    High Density Lipoproteins (HDL)
  114. The amount of this lipoprotein is inversely related to risk of cardiovascular disease
    High Density Lipoprotein (HDL)
  115. Elevated levels fo this LDL-like particle are thought to confer increased risk for premature CHD and stroke.
    Lipoprotein (a)
  116. This acts on triglycerides by removing one fatty acid chain at a time.
    Pancreatic lipase
  117. A chronic disease characterized by abnormal thickening and hardening of the walls of the arteries, with a resulting loss of elasticity
    arteriosclerosis
  118. this is the single leading cause of death and disability.
    artheriosclerosis
  119. these are nodules in the skin formed by lipid deposits.
    xanthomas
  120. true or false
    in coronary heart disease the ratio of HDL to total cholesterol is more meaningful than either value alone.
    true
  121. this is an enzymatic 4-step reaction in which the rate of reduction of NAD+ to NADH is measured.
    Triglyceride measurement
  122. What is the adult reference range for triglycerides?
    60-130 mg/dL
  123. This is an enzymatic 3-step reaction in which a color complex is formed.
    cholesterol measurement
  124. what is the reference range for cholesterol?
    Desirable:
    Moderate risk:
    High risk:
    • Desirable: 140-200 mg/dL
    • Moderate risk: 201-239 mg/dL
    • High risk: >240 mg/dL
  125. what is the methodology for lipoprotein measurement?
    electrophoresis
  126. What is the prefered specimen for lipoprotein measurement
    EDTA whole blood
  127. Who evaluates electrophoretic patterns for lipoprotein measurement.
    the pathologist
  128. this is an enzymatic and colorimetric method where selective percipitation of HDL is followed by cholesterol analysis.
    HDL
  129. what is the reference range for HDL
    Males:
    Females:
    • Males: 29-60 mg/dL
    • Females: 38-75 mg/dL
  130. what is the calculation for VLDL
    VLDL=trig/5
  131. What is the calculation for LDL
    Total Chol - (HDL+trig/5)
  132. LDL calculation is invalid if triglyceride level is above what?
    >400mg/dL

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