Comes from the Latin phrase meaning, "to the man." It refers to an argument that attacks theopposing speaker or another person rather than addressing the issues at hand.
a fictional work in which the characters represent ideas or concepts. In Paul Bunyan’sPilgrim’s Progress, for example, the characters named Faithful, Mercy, and Mr. Worldly Wisemanare clearly meant to represent types of people rather than to be characters in their own rights.
the repetition of consonant sounds, usually at the beginning of words: the repeated “t”and “c” sounds in the sentence, “The tall tamarack trees shaded the cozy cabin,” are examples ofalliteration.
passing reference to a familiar person, place, or thing drawn from history, the Bible,mythology, or literature.
When something is ambiguous, it is uncertain or indefinite; it is subject to more than oneinterpretation
Analogy asks a reader to think about the correspondence or resemblance between two things that areessentially different; a form of comparison in which the writer explains something unfamiliar bycomparing it to something familiar.
reading actively, paying close attention to both the content and thestructure of the text.
A belief or principle, stated or implied, that is taken for granted.
occurs when the conjunctions (such, as, and, or, but) that would normally connect a stringof words, phrases, or clauses are omitted from a sentence. For example, the sentence, "I came, I saw,I conquered"
Atmosphere is the emotional feeling – or mood – of a place, scene or event.
describes the feelings of a particular speaker or piece of writing toward a subject, person oridea.
the intended readership for a piece of writing.
A false or forced emotion that is often humorous
Literal (dictionary) meaning
Writers often use contrasts, or oppositions, to elaborate ideas. Contrasts help writers to expand ontheir ideas by allowing them to show both what a thing is and what it is not
Deduction is the process of reasoning from a stated premise to a necessary conclusion. This form ofreasoning moves from the general to the specific.
a statement of the meaning of a word.
tells how a person, place or thing is perceived by the five senses.Objective description reports these sensory qualities factually, whereas subjective description givesthe writer’s interpretation of them.
conversation that is recorded in a piece of writing.
refers to an author's choice of words
involves breaking down a single large unit into smaller subunits or breaking down a large group of items into discrete categories
an assessment of a piece of writing's effectiveness or merit.
the data on which a judgment or argument is based or by which proof or probability isestablished
illustrate a larger idea or represent something of which they are a part
the writer uses examples – specific facts, opinions, samples and anecdotes or stories – to support ageneralization and to make it more vivid, understandable and persuasive.
Writing or speech that is organized to explain
A piece of information presented as having a verifiable certainty or reality.
Figures of Speech
brief, imaginative comparisons that highlight the similarities between things that are basically dissimilar.
the process of reasoning to a conclusion about all members of a class through anexamination of only a few members of the class
when a situation produces an outcome that is the opposite of what is expected
When two contrasting things - ideas, words or sentence elements - are placed next to each other forcomparison
an error in reasoning that renders an argument invalid
The tendency to provide simple solutions to complex problems: “The reasonwe have inflation today is that OPEC has unreasonably raised the price of oil.”
(“It does not follow”): An inference or conclusion that does not follow fromestablished premises or evidence: “It was the best movie I saw this year and it should get anAcademy Award.”
Post hoc, ergo proper hoc
(“After this, therefore because of this”): Confusing chance orcoincidence with causation. Because one event comes after another one, id does not necessarilymean that the first event caused the second: “I won’t say I caught cold at the hockey game, but Icertainly didn’t have it before I went there.”
Begging the Question
Assuming in a premise that which needs to be proven: “If Americanautoworkers built a better product, foreign auto sales would not be so high.”
Making a misleading analogy between logically unconnected ideas: “He was a brilliantbasketball player; therefore, there’s no question in my mind that he will e a fine coach."
The tendency to see an issue as having only two sides: “Used car salespeople areeither honest or crooked.
a brief summary of the whole work.
Contradictory words put together in one statement
the speed of a story's action, dialogue, or narration.
a seeming contradiction that in fact reveals some truth
a series of closely relatedsentences
A literary technique that relies on the use of the same syntactical structures, (phrases, clauses,sentences) in a series in order to develop an argument or emphasize an idea.
an effort to ridicule or make fun of a literary work or an author by writing an imitation ofthe work or of the author's style.
A sympathetic feeling of pity or compassion evoked by an artistic work
A play on words
what the writer wants to accomplish in a particular piece of writing.
the reiteration of a word or phrase for emphasis
During the revision stage of the writing process, the writer determines what in the draft needs to bedeveloped or clarified so that the essay says what the writer intends it to say
Rhetoric; Rhetorical Purpose
Rhetoric is the art and logic of a written or spoken argument. Rhetorical writing is purposeful; examples of rhetorical purposes include to persuade, to analyze, or to expose.
Rhetorical, or stylistic devices
The specific language tools that an author uses to carry out a rhetorical strategy and thus achieve a purpose for writing.