Chapter 12 bio

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Chapter 12 bio
2012-01-31 22:00:42

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  1. sex chromosomes
    contains gene that determains gender
  2. autosomes
    remaining chromosomes that determine sex of an individual
  3. sex linked trait
    a trait that is coded for by an allele on a sex chromosome
  4. linked genes
    pairs of genes that tend to be inherited together
  5. chromosome map
    diagram that shows the linear order of genes
  6. map unit
    the percentage of crossing over for two traits is proportional to the distance between them on a chromosome. a map unit is a frequency of crossing over of 1 percent
  7. germ cell mutation
    a change in the nucleotide base sequence of a gene or dna molecule.
  8. somatic cell mutations
    take place in an organisms body cells so can affect the organism
  9. lethal mutations
    cause death, often before death
  10. deletion
    loss of a piece of chromosome
  11. inversion
    when a chromosomal fragment is broken off and flipped.
  12. translocation
    when a pieve of chromosome breaks off and attatches to another accidently
  13. nondisjunction
    a chromosome fails to seperate from its homologue during meiosis
  14. substitution
    one nucleotide replaces another
  15. point mutation
    a change that occurs within a single gene
  16. frameshift mutation
    makes all amino acids downstream change
  17. insertion mutations
    one or more nucleotides are added to a gene
  18. pedigree
    a diagram that shows how a trait is inherited over several generations
  19. genetic disorders
    are diseases and disabling conditions that have a genetic basis
  20. polygenic
    influenced by several genes
  21. multiple alleles
    genes with 3 or more alleles
  22. codominance
    both alleles are shown as phenotypes
  23. incomplete dominance
    displays both phenotypes
  24. sex influenced traits
    males and females show different phenotypes
  25. huntigton's disease
    an autosomal dominant condition characterized by forgetfullness and irritability
  26. aminocentesis
    allows a physician to remove some amniotic fluid from the fetus
  27. chronic villi sampling
    physician takes a sample of the chronic villi cells derived from the zygote.
  28. genetic counceling
    process of informing a person or couple about their genetic makeup.
  29. gene therepy
    a technique that places a healthy copy of a gene into the cells of a person whos copy of a gene is defective