Aseg exam 1 Facts

Card Set Information

Author:
yumih503
ID:
132131
Filename:
Aseg exam 1 Facts
Updated:
2012-01-31 23:50:34
Tags:
Aseg exam Facts
Folders:

Description:
Aseg exam 1 Facts
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user yumih503 on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Microblepharon Facts
    vertical lid shortening (upper and lower)cause nocturnal lagophthalmus
  2. Congenital Entropion Fact and Location and Management
    • Fact: lid turns inward
    • Location/cause: Upper - microphthalmos; Lower - malformed retractor muscle
    • Management: Holtz
  3. BPES Facts and Types
    • Facts: narrowing of palpebral fissure vertically and horizontally
    • Type 1: female only, ovarian failure
    • Type 2: male and female
  4. Eyelid Coloboma Location
    Junction of middle and Upper middle 1/3 of lidSuperior: nasal and unilateral (Goldenhar syndrome)Inferior: lateral and bilateral (system abnormality, Treacher Collins, Amniotic bands)
  5. Congenital Upper Lid Eversion Facts
    • Present at birth
    • African Amercian
    • Down Syndrome
  6. Ctypthophthalmus Types
    • Complete: most common
    • Incomplete: usually remains fused medially
    • Symblepharon: usually remains used superiorly
  7. Ectropion Types
    • Involutional: Due to age (Most common cause in adults) (Laxity/sagging)(Usually lower lid)
    • cicatricial: Due to burns, trauma, or chronic inflammation; Associated with rosacea, chronic blepharitis
    • congenital: 2ndary to vertical shortening of skin
    • inflammatory: Atopic dermatitis; Herpes Zoster; Rosacea
    • mechanical: 2ndary to edema, lid tumors
    • paralytic: CNVII; Bell’s Palsy
  8. Entropion Types
    • congenital: Dysgenesis of the lower eyelid retractors orstructural defects in the tarsal plate; Tarsal Kink Syndrome; Upper lid
    • Acute Spastic Entropion: Spastic closure of the eyelids allows the orbicularis oculi muscle to overcome the lower lid retractors
    • Involutional: Involution of the posterior lid retractors; Similar to spastic; Digital eversion of the lid is easy; Involution of the soft tissues of the orbit may lead to involutional enophthalmos and the entropion
    • Cicatrical: scar tissue of the conjunctiva; digital eversion of the lid is difficult; results from - trauma, chemical burns, Stevens-Johnson's sydrome, ocular cicatrical pemphigoid (OCP), infections, topical medication
  9. Microphthalmos Types
    • Simple: no other malformations
    • Complex: associated coloboma
    • With cyst: optical stalk closure failure leading to orbital cyst with associated cleft syndromes
    • Posterior: decreased TAL, but normal corneal diameter (hyeropia)
  10. Crouzon Facts
    • coronal and sagittal sutures fuse early
    • brachycephaly and mandibular prognathism -> broad and concave appearance
  11. Pfeiffer System signs
    • underdeveloped midface
    • webbed fingers
    • dental problems
    • hearing loss (50%)
  12. Apert Systemic signs
    • oxycephaly
    • midfacial hypoplasia
    • Cleft palate
    • syndactyly
  13. Goldenhar Facts
    • congenital
    • from fetal vascularaccident with anomalous branchial arch dvlpment
  14. Treachear Collins Facts
    • Mandibulofacial dystosis
    • Zygomatic bone fails to fuse with maxilla, frontal and temporal bones
    • small lower jaw
  15. Anterior Megalophthalmos Facts
    • megalocornea with enlarged lens
    • CB band wider than TM and SS on gonio
  16. Anterior Megalophthalmos Signs
    • Iris stretching
    • lens zonule stretchin
    • gpigment dispersion
    • lens subluxation
    • ectopia lentis
    • glaucoma
    • excessive mesenchymal tissue in angle
  17. Keratolenticular Dysgenesis Facts
    lens vesicle separates, but doesn't form correctly
  18. Sclerocornea Facts
    • nonprogressive
    • sceralization of the cornea
    • opaque collagen bundles
    • no inflammatory vascularization
  19. Posterior Keratoconus Facts
    • Steeper post corneal curvature
    • normal anterior corneal curvature
    • generally good vision
    • variation of Peter's anomaly
    • nonprogressive
    • no relation to keratoconus
  20. Posterior Keratoconus Types
    • Generalized
    • Circumscribed
  21. Congenital Anterior Staphyloma Facts
    • opaque cornea protroduces thru eyelids due to intrauterine keratitis
    • poor vision
  22. Anterior Lenticonus Facts
    • anterior conical protrusion of the center of the lens surface up to 3-4 mm
    • due to thin anterior capsule and fragile basement membrane
    • spontaneous rupture can occur
  23. Microspherophakia Facts
    • Lens is small and relatively spherical
    • increased antero-posterior thickness
  24. Lens coloboma Facts
    • not a true coloboma (no missing tissue)
    • segmental agenesis
    • lens shape chnges b.c of zonule attach
    • mentinferior flattening b.c CB colobom
    • acaused by cysts and/or tumors of CB
  25. Posterior Embryotoxon Facts
    Thickened, anteriorly displaced SL
  26. Alagille's Syndrome Facts
    • Axenfeld's + pigmentary retinopathy
    • has abnormal EOG and ERG
  27. Alagille's Syndrome Signs
    • Corectopia
    • Esotropia
    • Absent deep tendon reflexes
    • Post embryotoxon
  28. Rieger's Anomaly Facts
    • Axenfeld's anomaly + iris atrophy + corectopia +ectropion uvea
    • iris atrophy varies from mild to marked thinning
  29. Rieger's Sydrome Facts
    • Rieger's anomlay + dental, facial, cranial and skeletal abnormalities
    • mental retardation
  30. Peter's Anomaly Facts
    • development abnormalities of central anterior segment
    • iris strands may extend from collarette to the corneal scar
  31. Peter's Anomaly Signs
    • central corneal scar
    • absent or defective posterior stroma, descemet's and endothlium
    • corneal leukoma
  32. Peter's Anomaly Types
    • Type 1: no lens involvement (iris adhesion)
    • Type 2: lens involvement (cataract, abnormal lens position, corneo-lenticular adhesion)
  33. Mittendorf Dot Facts
    anterior remnant of the hyaloid artery as it joins the tunica vasculosa lentis
  34. Aniridia Facts
    • Congenital absence of the iris (can be partial)
    • total absence rare. stump often present
  35. Chalazion Facts
    • sterile granulomatous lesions caused by retained sebaceous secretion from meibomian glands
    • typically progression from hordeolum
    • may casue WTR astigmatism
    • may cause mechianical ptsosis
  36. Comedones Facts
    plug of keratin and sebum within dialted orifice of a hair follicle (black head and white heads)
  37. Epidermoid Cyst Facts
    • Proliferation of epidermal cells
    • any age, but most common in 30s-40s
    • discharge foul smelling
  38. Epidermoid Cyst Signs
    • firm, round, mobile, flesh-colored
    • superficial or subcutaneous
    • keratinized: most opaque of the cysts
  39. Cyst of Moll (apocrine hidrocystoma) Facts
    • abnormal proliferation of apocrine secretory sweat gland
    • mostly solitary
    • no seasonal changes
    • not more symptomatic in hot weather typically larger then eccrine
  40. Cyst of Moll Signs
    most translucent of the cysts
  41. Eccrine Hidrocystoma Facts
    • cystic lesions with a lining resembling that of the eccrine sweat gland
    • typically smaller than appocrine
    • increased prevalence in female
    • worsens in hot/humid weather
  42. Eccrine Hidrocystoma Types
    • Smith: single
    • Robinson: multiple
  43. Syringoma Facts
    • proliferation of intra-epidermal duct eccrine sweat gland epithelium
    • usually appears at puberty
  44. Cyst of Zeiss Facts
    blocked zeiss lash follicle gland
  45. Cyst of Zeiss Signs
    • non-translucent (may be sebaceous)
    • Keratin, degenerated epithelial cells, granulates of fat and cholesterin in CT sac
  46. Milia Facts
    • caused by occlusion of polosebaceous units
    • results in retention of keratin
    • tiny epidermoid cysts
  47. Squamous Cell Papilloma Facts
    • Most common benign eyelid growth
    • benign hyerplasia of the squamous epi
    • if cancerous it will change color, size, or show irregular margins
    • generic germ for any papilloma of non-viral origin
    • "papilloma" means benign epi lesion of skin or mucosa
    • usually in older patients (30-40)
    • de novo
    • also called Acrochordan (skin tag)
  48. Actinic Keratosis Facts
    • keratotic growth surrounds errythema
    • scaly appearance, red underneath
    • most common precancerous skin lesion
    • 25% develop squamous cell carcinoma
    • due to chronic sun exposure
  49. Seborrheic Keratosis (basal cell papilloma, senile veruca) facts
    • composed of basal intraepithelial cells
    • found in old pple
    • can be found all over body
  50. Viral Papillom (verruca vulgaris) facts
    • fibrovascular tissue
    • risk of malignancy
    • may resolve spontaneously
    • can be spread by contact or with excision
    • usually young pple, and pedunculated
  51. Inverted Follicular Keratosis Facts
    • non-pigmented papillomatous lesion
    • zones of squamous cells arranged in whrols
    • may grow rapidly
    • inflammatory variant of seborrheic keratosis
    • may be viral. not certain
    • mostly in males and old pple
  52. Keratocanthoma (molluscum sebaceum) facts
    • form of pseudoepitheliumatous hyperplasia
    • some classify as squamous carcinoma
    • appear in sun exposed areas
    • may resolve spontaneously
  53. Acquired Melanocytic Nevus Types
    • Blue Nevi: derived from dermal melanocytes, nevus cells located deep in dermis. uncommon
    • Compound: derived from epidermal melanocytes. nevus cells from epidermis into dermis. middle aged pts
    • Junctional Nevi: derived from epidermal melanocytes, cells at epidermal/dermal junction. younger ppl
    • Intradermal: dervied from epidermal malanocytes; cells confined to dermis only. older pple. MOST COMMON NEVI. papillomatous with little/no pigment. no malignant potential
  54. Congenital Melanocytic Nevus Facts
    • "kissing" or "split" nevus
    • very rare
  55. Nevus of Ota facts
    • ispilateral melanocytosis of sclera and uveal tract
    • can also be conjunctiva
    • usually CNV (V1 or V2)
    • low risk of malignancy
  56. Neurofibroma Types
    • Plexiform: kids wtih Neurofibromatosis 1
    • Solitary: adults, 25% with NF1
  57. Ephelias Fact
    • freckles
    • focal areas of cutaneous melanocytic over activity
    • no malignant potential
    • common with light complexions in sun-exposed areas
  58. Xanthelesma Facts
    • flat or slightly elevated, creamy yellow plaques composed of lipid histocytes and inflammation
    • most pple have normal lipid levels
    • if age 30 wth arcus and xanthelesma suspect Hyperlipidemia
  59. Port Wine Stain (venus flammeus) Facts
    • congenital, subcutaneous venular formation (dilated, blood filled space)
    • follows dermatomes
    • always present at birth
    • does not blanch
    • risk of glaucoma
  60. capillary hemangioma facts
    • hamartomatous growth of capillary blood vessels
    • proliferation of vascular channels in dermis and subcutaneous tissue
    • most common pediatric eyelid/orbital tumor (but still rare)
    • appears witin 1mo of age
    • rapid growth in 2 phases (peak 3-8mo)
    • may spontaneously involute after 1yr
    • "strawberry nevus"
    • females 3x more likely
    • blanches with pressure
    • may swell with crying
    • can have extraconal elements (muscle)
    • involvement of conj common
  61. Pyogenic Granuloma Facts
    • Red mass at site of chronic inflammation
    • collection capillaries
    • Bleeds readily
    • Hemorrhagic pyogenic granuloma (very red)
    • not pyogenic or granulomatous
  62. Basal Cell Carcinoma Facts
    • central ulceration
    • firm, pearly in color
    • nodular or flatter presentation
    • most common malignant eye tumor (90%)
    • locally invasive, rarely metastatic
    • typicall in males, older pple
  63. Basal Cell Carcinoma Location
    LL>UL>M canthus> L canthus
  64. Basal Cell Carcinoma Types
    • Nodular: "rodent ulcer" (most common)
    • Morpheaform: sclerosing (most invasive)
  65. Squamous Cell Carcinoma Facts
    • scaly, ulcerated
    • more of an erythematous plaque
    • often arise from actinic keratosis
    • less common than basal cell carcinoma
    • more aggressive than basal cell carcinoma
    • less than %5 of malignant eyelid tumors
    • 2nd most common tumor
    • low risk of metastasis
    • spreads through lymph noes (20%)
  66. Lentigo Maligna Facts
    • Hutchinson Freckle
    • uncommon (10% of cases)
    • old ppl, sun damaged skin infiltrates dermis and becomes malignant
  67. Sebaceous Cell Carcinoma Facts
    • very rare
    • highly malignant
    • most common age 50-70, mostly in females
    • pagetoid spread (uneven)
  68. Malignant Melanoma Facts
    • MOST LETHAL PRIMARY SKIN TUMOR
    • very rare (<1%)
    • rapid growth with color change
  69. Kaposi Sarcoma Fact
    • soft tissue sarcoma
    • vascular tumor
    • biolaceous nodule
    • nontender
    • very malignant if immunocompromised
  70. Trichiasis Cause
    • entropion (pseudo-trichaisis)
    • cicatrical eye disease: Steven-Johnson and ocular cicatrical pemphigoid where lid is scarred
    • Chronic blepharitis
    • inflammation
    • idiopathic
  71. Eyelash Ptosis Fact
    Upper lid lashes sag downward
  72. Distichiasis Facts
    • double row of lashes
    • ectopic lashes that grow posterior to or out of meibomian glands
    • normally softer, shorter and finer
  73. Distichaisis Congenital
    • rare
    • primary epithelial germ cell destined to differentiate into a specialized sebaceous gland of the tarsus develops into a complete pilosebaceous unit
    • distichiasis lymphadenopathy syndrome
  74. Distichiasis Acquired
    • Metaplasia and dedifferentiation of the meibomian glands to become hair follicles
    • most important cause = late stage cicatrizing conunctivitis associated with chemical injury, Steven-Johnson, and ocular cicatrical pemphigoid
  75. Trichomegaly Facts
    Excessive lash growth
  76. Trichomegaly Causes
    • AIDS
    • hypothyroidism
    • Latisse (Allergan)
    • Cyclosporin (restasis)
    • Prostaglandin Analog (glaucoma med)
    • Oculocutaneous albinism type 1
  77. Madarosis Facts
    loss of lashes, brow, or both
  78. Madarosis Causes
    • chronic blepharitis
    • sebaceous cell carcinoma
    • burn
    • trauma
    • trichotillomania
    • hypothyroidism
    • psoriasis
    • seborrheic dermatitis (assoc dry skin)
    • chemo
    • CT disease
    • malnutrition
    • Alopecia (hair loss)
  79. Poliosis Facts
    total absent of melanin in hair follicle of lash or brow

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview