Microbiology #1

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Microbiology #1
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2012-02-06 15:41:21
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Microbiology #1
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  1. The sum of the chemical reactions in an organism?
    Metabolism
  2. Provides energy and building blocks for anabolism? "breaking things down"
    Catabolism
  3. Uses energy and building blocks to build large molecules? " building up"
    Anabolism
  4. A sequence of enzymatically catalyzed chemical reactions in a cell?
    Metabolic pathway
  5. Needed to disrupt electronic configurations?
    Activation energy
  6. Frequency of collisions with enough energy to bring about a reaction?
    Reaction rate
  7. Can be increased by enzymes or by increasing temperature or pressure?
    Reaction rate
  8. Changes how easily reactions happen?
    Enzymes
  9. Enzyme components?
    • Apoenzyme-protein
    • Cofactor-nonprotein component
    • Holoenzyme-apoenzyme plus cofactor
  10. What enzyme binds to?
    Substrate
  11. Important enzymes
    • NAD+
    • NADP+
    • FAD
    • Coenzyme A
  12. Oxidation-reduction
    Oxidoreductase
  13. Transfer functional groups
    Transferase
  14. Hydrolysis
    Hydrolase
  15. Removal of atoms without hydrolysis
    Lyase
  16. Rearrangement of atoms
    Isomerase
  17. Joining of molecules
    Ligase
  18. RNA that cuts and splices RNA, stores info and acts as enzyme
    Ribozyme
  19. Proteins unfolding
    Denaturation
  20. body temp
    37* celsius
  21. if extreme denatures protien or stops working
    PH
  22. blocks active site micmics natural substrate
    competitive inhibition
  23. cell controls when it makes product
    feedback inhibition
  24. energy source-Chemical
    carbon source-Co2
    chemoautotrophs
  25. energy source-chemical
    carbon source-organic compounds
    chemoheterotrophs
  26. energy source-light
    carbon source-Co2
    Photoautotrophs
  27. energy source-light
    carbon source-organic compounds
    Photohetertrophs
  28. science of classifying organisms
    2 goals-identify and give universal name
    Taxonomy
  29. study of the evolutionary hisotry of organisms
    Phylogeny (systematics)
  30. 3 domains
    Bacteria, Archaea, Eukraya
  31. grouping organsisms according to common properties implies that a groups of organisms evolved from a common ancestor
    Phylogenetics
  32. genus+specific epithet
    Binomial Nomenclature
  33. Domain-broadest classification
    kingdom
    phylum
    class
    order
    family
    genus
    species-most specific
    Taxonomic heirarchy
  34. a populations of cells with similiar characteristics
    Prokaryotic species
  35. grown in laboratory media
    culture
  36. population of cells derived from a single sell
    clone
  37. genetically different cells within a clone
    strain
  38. a group of closley related organisms that breed among themselves
    Eukaryotic species
  39. Multicellular, no cell walls, chemoheterotrophs
    animalia
  40. multicellular, cellulose cell walls, usually photoautotrophic
    plantae
  41. a catch all kingdom for eukaryotic organisms that do not fit other kingdoms, grouped into classes based on rRNA
    Protista
  42. population of viruses with similar characteristics that occupies a particular ecological niche (what species it can infect)
    viral species
  43. placing organisms in groups of related species
    classification
  44. matching characteristics of an "unknown" organism to lists of known organisms
    indentification
  45. be used to ID unknown, either test for pathogen or antibodies against pathogens, needs specific antibodies
    "enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay"
    ELISA
  46. needs specific antibodies, used to ID pathogens and to compare pathogens, sees size of proteins, benefit can ID toxin bacteria actually produces
    The western blot
  47. does not use antibodies, uses viruses that attack bacteria
    Phage typing
  48. counts cell and purify cells that you are interested in.
    Flow cytometry
  49. test for specific gene that makes toxin
    Polymeratse chain (pcr)
  50. comparing bands
    DNA fingerprinting
  51. gives you idea of how similar species are
    Nucleic acid hybridizaition
  52. used to ID bacteria, needs specific DNA
    DNA probe
  53. compares 100's of genes at once
    DNA chip technology
  54. lets you visualize specific bacteria and their location in a cell
    FISH
  55. enterobacteriales
    • enterobacter, erwinia, escheri chia
    • klebsiella, proteus, salmonella, serratia
    • shigella, yersinia
  56. Began with Pasteur's work
    Discoveries: relationship b/w microbes and disease
    Immunity
    antimicriobial drugs
    Golden age of Microbiology
  57. a rapidily growing cell
    germ
  58. allows: prevention of food spoilage and disease occurance,

    Lead to : aseptic techinique
    knowledge of microorganisms
  59. Genus-capitilized, specific epithet lower case, both italicized or underlined
    scientific name
  60. Bacillus-rod shape
    coccus-spherical or ovoid
    spirillus-spiral or curved or corkscrew
    common shapes
  61. hypothesis that lilving organisms arise from nonliving material "vital force" forms life
    Sponataneous generation
  62. living organisims arise from pre exisiting life
    biogensis
  63. treatment with chemicals, can be synthetic drugs or antibiotics
    chemotherapy
  64. chemicals produced by bacteria and fungi that inhibit or kill other microbes
    antibiotics
  65. study of bacteria
    Bacteriology
  66. study of fungi
    mycology
  67. study of viruses
    Virology
  68. study of protozoa and parasitic worm
    parasitology
  69. study of immunity
    immunology
  70. study of how microbes inherit traits
    microbial genetics
  71. study of how DNA directs protein synthesis
    Molecular biology
  72. study of an oragnisms genes
    provided new tools for classifying microorgansisms
    Genomics
  73. bacteria degrade organic matter in sewage

    bacteria degrades or detoxify pollutants such as oil and mercury
    Bioremediation
  74. gave rise to use of term flora for microbes, replaced by microbiota

    microbes normally found in and on human body prevent growth of pathogens, produce growth factors-folic acid and vitamin K
    Normal microbiota
  75. ability of the body to ward off disease

    factors include: skin, stomach acid, and antimicrobial chemicals
    Resistance
  76. Peptidoglycan cell walls, binary fission
    Energy: use organic or inorganic chemicals or photosynthesis
    Prokaryotes
  77. prokaryotic
    lack peptidoglycan (may lack cell wall)
    live in extreme environments
    include:methanogens, extreme halophiles and extreme themrophiles
    Archaea
  78. eukaryotic
    chitin cell wall
    have distinct nucleus containing cells genetics (DNA)
    use organic chemicals for energy, absorb nutrients from environment, unicellular or multicellular, reproduce sexually or asexually
    fungi
  79. unicellular
    eurkaryotic
    absorb or ingest organic chemicals.
    may be motile via pseudopods, cilia or flagella
    Protozoa
  80. eukarotic
    cellulose cell wall
    use photosynthesis for energy
    produce oxygen and organic compounds
    Algae
  81. acellular
    consists of DNA or RNA core
    core surrounded by protein coat
    replicate only when they are in a living host
    Viruses
  82. eukarotic
    multicellular
    parasitic flatworms and roundworms called "helminths
    Multicellular animal parasites
  83. comes from greek word for "true nucleus"
    paired chromosomes in nuclear membrane
    histones, organelles
    polysaccharide cell walls
    mitotic spindle

    plasma membrane has sterols and glycocalyx
    eurkaryote functional anatomy
  84. comes from greek word "prenucleus"
    1 circular chromosome, not in a membrane
    no histones, no organessl
    peptidoglycan cell wall (bacteria)
    pseudomurein cell wall (arachea)
    binary fission
    Prokaryote functional anatmoy
  85. pairs-diplococci, diplobacilli

    clusters-staphylococci

    chains-streptococci, streptobacilli
    arrangements
  86. outside cell wall, usually sticky
    capsule neatly organized
    slime layer unorganized and loose
    extracellular polysaccharide allows cell to attach
    capsules prevent phagocytosis

    mainly animal cells, bonded to proteins and lipids in membrane
    Glycocalyx
  87. outside cell wall, made of chains of flagellin, attached to a protein hook, anchored to the wall and membrane by the basal body
    flagella
  88. rotate flagella to run or tumblemove toward or away from stimuli (taxis)flagella proteins are H antigens
    Motile cells
  89. AKA: endoflagella

    in spirochetes (only bacteria)
    anchored at one end of a cell
    rotations causes cell to move
    Axial filaments
  90. allow allow attachment
    fimbrae
  91. main functions: transfer DNA from one cell to another
    Pilli
  92. prevent osmotic lysis. main function-protection
    main structral component-peptidoglycan.
    2 types: gram neg and gram postive
    cell wall
  93. polymer of disaccharide
    nam, nag
    linked by polypetides (chani of amino acids)
    peptidogylcan
  94. O157:H7

    H-flagella antigen
    O-polysaccharide
    E. coli
  95. thin layer of peptidoglycan
    2 membranes outer (LPS) lipopdysaccharide
    plasma membrane

    periplasmic space-b/w 2 membranes, protection from phagocytosis, complements and antibiotics

    porin proteins from channels through membrane
    gram neg cell wall
  96. wall-telchoic acid: holds layers together
    thicks pepitdogylcan
    in acid fast cells contains mycolic acid

    lipotechoic acid links to plasma membrane
    wall techoic acid links to peptidoglycan
    gram positive cell wall
  97. purple
    cell wall-2 ring basal body
    dirupted by lysozyme
    pcn sensitive
    attachmanet to 1 membrane
    gram positive
  98. pink
    cell wall 4 ring basal body
    endotoxin
    tetracycline sensitive
    attachment to 2 membranes
    gram negative
  99. like gram positive, waxy lipid (mycolic acid) bound to peptidoglycan
    2 groups
    mycobacterium (leprassy) and nocardia
    color fusia
    acid fast cell walls
  100. mycoplasmas-lack cell walls, sterols in plasma membrane
    arachea wall less-walls of pseudmurein
    lack nam & D-amino acids

    Only has NAG
    Atypical cell wall
  101. susceptible to osmtic lysis
    protoplast/spheroplast
  102. wall less cells that swell into irregular shapes
    L- forms
  103. selective permability allows passage of some molecules
    enzymes for ATP
    every cell has one
    plasma membrane
  104. membranes containing pigments
    thylakoids
  105. easistes way to move substances
    from high concentrations to low
    can gain or lose
    simple diffusion
  106. from high concentration to low
    needs transporter protein
    cell spends no energy
    facilitated diffusion
  107. movement of water across a selectivly permeable membrane
    from high water concentrations to low
    osmosis
  108. pressure needed to stop the movemment of water across the membrane
    osmotic pressure
  109. no net movement of water
    same concentration
    isotnic solution
  110. water moves into the cell and may cause the cell to burst of the wall is weak or damaged (osmotic lysis)
    fewer on outside water goes in
    hypotonic solution
  111. water moves out of the cell, causing it cytoplasm to shrink (plamolysis)

    more on outside water goes out

    "oldest mean of preserving food
    hypertonic solution
  112. requires a transporter protein and ATP
    needs energy, can go from low to high
    active transport of substances
  113. requires a transporter protein and PEP
    group translocation of substances
  114. protein synthesis

    70"s-what you find in a prokaryotic
    prokaryotic ribosome
  115. means of survival (resting cell)

    resistant to heat, chemical, dessication

    EX: bacillus, clostrdium
    both gram positive
    endospores
  116. returing to active state (vegetative state)
    germination
  117. tough resistant outer layer
    spore coat
  118. pseudopods extend and engluf particles (cell eating)
    Phagocytosis
  119. membrane folds inward bringing in fluid and dissolved substances (cell drinking)
    Pinocytosis
  120. formation of endospores by sporulation
    • 1-spore septum begins to isolat replicated DNA and small portion of cytoplasm
    • 2-plasma membrane surrounds DNA & cytoplasm
    • 3-spore septum surrounds isolated portion formimg forespore
    • 4-peptidoglycan layer forms b/w membranes
    • 5-spore coat forms
    • 6-endospore is freed from cell
  121. single celled (unicellular)
    prokaryotes (no nucleus)
    several shapes, bacillus, coccus, spiral
    peptidoglycan cell wall
    for energy use organic chemicals, inorganic material, photosynthesis
    reproduce by binary fission (one cell spliting into 2)
    Bacteria
  122. flagella distrubuted over the entire cell
    peritrichous
  123. flagella at one or both poles of cell
    polar
  124. a single flagella at one end
    monotrichous
  125. a tuft of flagella coming from one pole
    lophotrichous
  126. flagella at both poles of the cell
    amiphtrichous
  127. Gram positive bacteria
    • Clostridium
    • Epulopiscium
    • Bacillus
    • Staphylococcus
    • Streptococcus
    • Entercoccus
    • Mycoplasma
    • Lactobaciilales
    • Gardnerella
    • Frankia
    • Corynebacterium
    • Actinomyces
    • Nocardia
    • Propionibacterium

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