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  1. sense
    a system that translates information from outside the nervous system into neural activiy
  2. sensations
    messages from the senses that make up the raw information that affects many kinds of behavior and mental processes
  3. accessory structure
    structures, such as the lens of the eye, that modify a stimulus
  4. transduction
    the process of converting incoming energy into neural activity through receptors
  5. transduction
    the process of converting incoming energy into neural activity through receptors
  6. sensory receptors
    specialized cells that detect certain forms of energy
  7. adaptation
    the process through which responsiveness to an unchanging stimulus decreases over time
  8. coding
    thranslating the physical properties of a stimulus into a pattern of neural activity that specifically identifies those properties
  9. doctrine of specific nerve energies
    the discovery that stimulus of a particular sensory nerve procides codes for that sense, no mattre how the stimulation takes place
  10. spatial codes
    coding attributes of a stimulus in terms of the location of firing neurons relative to their neighbors
  11. sound
    a repetitive fluctuation in the pressure of a medium, such as air
  12. amplitude
    the difference between the peak and the baseline of a waveform
  13. wavelength
    the distance from one peak to the next in a wave form
  14. frequency
    the number of complete waveforms, or cycles, that pass by a given point in space every second
  15. loudness
    a psychological dimension of sound determined by the amplitude of a sound wave
  16. pitch
    how high or low a tone sounds
  17. timbre
    the mixture of frequencies and amplitudes that make up the quality of sound
  18. tympanic membrane
    a membrane in the middle ear that generates vibrations that math the sound waves striking it
  19. cochlea
    a fluid-filled spiral structure in the ear in which auditory transduction occurs
  20. basilar membrane
    the floor of the fluid-filled duct that runs through the cochlea
  21. auditory nerve
    the bundle of axons that carries stimulu from the hair cells of the cochlea to the brain
  22. primary auditory cortex
    the area in the brain's temporal lobe that is first to receive information about sounds from te thalamus
  23. place theory
    a theory that hair cells at a particular place on the basilar membrane respond most to a particular frequency of sound
  24. frequency-matching theory
    the view that some sounds are coded in tems of the frequency of neural firing
  25. visible light
    electromagnetic radiation that has a wavelength of about 400 nanometers to about 750
  26. light intensity
    a physical dimension of light waves that refers to how much energy that light contains; it determines the brightness of light
  27. light wavelength
    the distance between peaks in light waves
  28. cornea
    the curved, transparent, protective layer through which light rays enter the eye
  29. pupil
    an opening in the eye, just behind the cornea, through which light passes
  30. iris
    the colorful part of the eye, which constricts or relaxes to adjust the amound of light entering the eye
  31. len
    the part of the eye behind the pupil that bends light ras, focusing them on the retina
  32. retina
    the surface at the back of the eye onto which the lens focuses light rays
  33. acommodation
    the ability of the lens to change its sape and bend light rays so that objects are in focus
  34. photoreceptors
    nerve cells in the retina that code light energy into neural activity
  35. photopigments
    chemical in photorecptors that respond to light and assist in converting light into nerual activity
  36. dark adapation
    the increasing ability to see in the dark as time in the dark increases
  37. rods
    highly ligh-sensitive, but color insensitive, photorecptor in the retina that allows vision even in dim light
  38. cones
    photoreceptors in the reina that help us to distinguish colors
  39. fovea
    a region in the center of the retina where cones are highly concentrated
  40. acuity
    visual clarity, which is greates in the fovea because of its large concentration of cones
  41. lateral inhibition
    a process in which lateral connections allow one photoreceptor to inhibit the responsiveness of its neighbor, thus enhancing the sensation of visual contrast
  42. ganglion cells
    cells i the retina that generate action potentials
  43. receptive field
    the portion of the retina, and the visual world, that affects a given ganglion cell
  44. potic nerve
    a bundle of fibers composed of axons of ganglion cells that carries visual information to the brain
  45. blind spot
    the light-insensitive point at which axons from all of the ganglion cells converge and exit the eyeball
  46. optic chiasm
    part of the bottom surface of the brain where half of each optic nerve's fibers cross over to the opposite side of the brain
  47. lateral genicalate nucleaus
    a region of the thalamus in which axons from most of the ganglion cells in the retina end and form synapses
  48. primary visual cortex
    an area at the back of the brain to which neurons in the lateral geniculate nucles relay visual input
  49. feature detectors
    cells in the vcortex that respond to a specific feature of an object
  50. hue
    the essential "color", determined by the dominant wavelenght of light
  51. saturation
    the purity of a color
  52. brightness
    the sensation of the overall intensity of all of the wavelengths that make up light
  53. trichromatic theory
    a theory of color vision identifying three types of visual elements, each of which is most sensitive to differet wavelengths of light
  54. opponent-process theory
    a theory of color vision stating tha color-sensitive visual elements are grouped into red-green, blue-ello, and black-white elements
  55. synesthesia
    a blending of sensory experience that causes some people to "see" sounds or "taste"" colors
  56. olfaction
    the sense of smell
  57. gustation
    the sense of taste
  58. olfactory bulb
    a brain structure that reveives messages regaring olfaction
  59. pheromones
    chemicals released by one animal and detected by another tht shape the second animal's behavior or phsiology
  60. vomeronasal organ
    a portion of the mammalian olfactory system that is sensitive to pheromones
  61. papillae
    structures on the tongue containing groups of taste receptors, or taste buds
  62. gate control theory
    a theory suggesting that a functional "gae" in the spinal cord can either let pain impulses travel upward to the brain or block their progress
  63. analgesia
    the absence of pain sensations in the presence of a normally painful stimulus
  64. proprioceptive senses
    the sensory system s that allow us to know about where we are and what each part of out body is doing
  65. vestibular sense
    the proprioceptive sense that provides information about the position of the head (and hence the body) in space and about its movements
  66. vestibular sacs
    organs in the inner ear that connect the semicircular canals and the cochlea and contribute to the body's sense of balance
  67. otoliths
    small crystals in the fluid filled vestibular sacs of the inner ear that, when shifted by gravity, stimulate nerve cells that inform the brain of the position of the head
  68. semicircular canals
    tubes in the inner ear whse fluid, when shifted by head movements stimulates nerve cells that tell the brain about those movements
  69. kinesthesia
    the sense that tells you where the parts of your body are with respect to one another
Card Set:
2012-02-06 03:08:42

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