Elbow examination

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Elbow examination
2012-02-01 11:40:14

Elbow examination
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  1. What are the bony landmarks of the elbow
    • Humerus
    • Lateral epicondyle
    • Medial epicondyle
    • Capitellum
    • Trochlea
    • Radial head
    • Radius
    • Olecranon
    • Ulna
    • Coronoid
  2. What is the range of movement of the elbow
    • Flexion
    • Extension
    • Pronation
    • Supination
  3. What should be felt during an elbow examination
    • Shoulder
    • Humerus
    • Medial epicondyle
    • Lateral epicondyle
    • Olecranon
    • Radial head
    • Ulna
  4. Sensory function of the ulnar nerve
    Palmar and dorsal aspect of the little finger and ulna border of the ring finger
  5. What is the sensory function of the medial nerve
    • Palmar aspect -thumb, index, middle and radial border of the ring finger
    • Dorsal aspect - distal phalages of the thumb, index, middle, and radial border of the ring finger
  6. What is the radial nerve sensory function
    Dorsal aspect - first web space
  7. What is the ulnar nerve motor function
    • Fanning
    • Crossing
    • Thumb adduction
  8. What is the median nerve motor function
    • Thumb abduction
    • Thumb opposition
  9. What is the radial nerve motor function
    Dorsiflexion against resistance
  10. What is CRITOL
    Classification of ossification centres in the elbow
  11. Does ossification at the elbow generally occur earlier or later in girls
  12. What is the order for CRITOL
    • Capitellum (1)
    • Radial head (3)
    • Internal (medial epicondyle) (5)
    • Trochlea (7)
    • Olecranon (9)
    • Lateral epicondyle (11)
  13. What does the capitellum articulate with
    Radial head
  14. What does the trochlea articulate with
  15. Which fat pad may be classed as normal unless displaces anteriorly
    Anterior fat pad
  16. Which fat pad, if raised nearly always indicates a fracture
    Posterior fat pad
  17. On a lateral X-ray, where should the capitellum lie in relation to the anterior humeral line
    With approx 1/3 of the capitellum anterior to the anterior humeral line
  18. On an AP and lateral X-ray, how should the radial capitellar line lie in relation to the radius and capitellum
    The radiacapitellar line should go through the centre of the radius and the capitellum
  19. What constitutes an adequate elbow X-ray
    • Distal 1/3 humerus
    • Proximal 1/3 radius and ulna
  20. In which direction do elbows most commonly dislocate
  21. What fractures of the elbow are associated with dislocations
    • Coronoid
    • Radial head
  22. What do raised fat pads often indicate
    • Radial head fractures
    • Radial neck fractures
  23. If fat pads are raised but no fracture is seen how should the elbow be treated
    As if fractured
  24. On X-ray, what may a crack through the coronoid suggest
    A reduced dislocation
  25. What may the absence of fat pads indicate
    • A complete rupture of the joint capsule
    • Ie. A relocated elbow
  26. When must the radio capitellar line always be evaluated
    • Ulna shaft fractures
    • May be an associated radial head dislocation
    • Monteggia
  27. What may be indicated if less than 1/3 of the capitellum lies anterior to the anterior humeral line
    • Supracondylar fracture
    • Distal fragmentdispleased posteriorly
  28. What is more important, the age of ossification or the order
    • The order
    • Can work out what should be where, based on what is already there, if one is missing it is probably displaced into the joint