Biology Chapter 10 Vocab

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SamanthaStahl
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132267
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Biology Chapter 10 Vocab
Updated:
2012-02-01 18:01:07
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Biology
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Vocabulary words for Biology, Chapter 10
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  1. Genes
    Functional unit that controls inherited trait expression that is passed on from one generation to another generation.
  2. Homologous Chromosome
    One or two paired chromosomes, one from each plant, that carries genes for a specific trait at the same location.
  3. Gamete
    A haploid sex cell, formed during meiosis, that can combine with another haploid sex cell and produce a diploid fertilized egg.
  4. Haploid
    Cell with half the number of chromosomes (n) as a diploid (2n) cell.
  5. Fertilization
    Process by which haploid gametes combine, forming a diploid cell with 2n chromosomes, with n chromosomes from the female parent and n chromosomes from the male parent.
  6. Diploid
    Having two copies of each chromosome. (2n)
  7. Meiosis
    Reduction division process, occuring only in reproductive cells, in which one diploid cell (2n) produces 4 haploid cells (n) that are not genetically identical.
  8. Crossing Over
    Exchange of chromosomal segments between a pair of homologous chromosomes during prophase 1 of meiosis.
  9. Genetics
    Science of heredity.
  10. Allele
    Alternative form that a single gene may have for a particular trait.
  11. Dominant
    Mendel's name for a specific trait that appeared in the F1 generation.
  12. Recessive
    Mendel's name for a specific trait hidden or masked in the F1 generation.
  13. Homozygous
    Organism with two of the same alleles for a specific trait.
  14. Heterozygous
    organism with two different alleles for a specific trait.
  15. Genotype
    An organism's allele pairs.
  16. Phenotype
    observable characteristic that is expressed as a result of an allele pair.
  17. Law of Segregation
    Mendelian law stating that two alleles for each trait spereate during meiosis.
  18. Hybrid
    Organism heterozygous for a specific trait.
  19. Law of Independent Assortment
    Mendelian law stating that a random distribution of alleles occurs during the formation of gametes.
  20. Genetic Recombination
    New combination of genes produced by crossing over and independent assortment.
  21. Polyploidy
    Having one or more extra sets of all chromosomes which, in polyploid plants, can often result in greater size and better growth and survival.

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