anatomy ch21

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anatomy ch21
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2010-04-05 22:29:30
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anatomy 226 test # 2 chapter 21
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  1. Lymphatic system consist of what two semi independent parts:
    network of lymphatic vessels and lymphoid tissues and organs
  2. returns interstitual body fluid and leaked plasma proteins back to the blood, absorbs fat in small intestines, filters/destroys foriegn antigens
    lymphatic system
  3. interstitual fluid once it has entered lymphatic vessels; contains many protiens, microbes, cancer cells, about 3 L lymph return/day; relies on skeletal and respiratory pumps to move
    lymph
  4. §Similar to blood
    capillaries, yet more permeable with endothelial minivalves that remain open and withstand pressure
    lymphatic capillaries
  5. Allow interstitial fluid to enter, but not to
    escape from lymph capillaries

    Keeps lymph flowing in a one-way direction
    valves in lymphatic capillaries
  6. can absorb cell debris, pathogens, and cancer cells durign inflammation
    lymphatic capillaries
  7. §Have thinner walls, with more internal valves than veins and more anastomoses
    lymphatic collecting vessels
  8. travel with arteries/veins
    collecting vessels
  9. nutrients are supplied from branching_______________
    vasa vasorum
  10. are formed by the union
    of the largest collecting vessels
    lymphatic trunks
  11. Major trunks include:
    paired lumbar, intercostal, bronchiomediastinal, subclavian, and jugular trunks and a single intestinal trunk
  12. Lymph is ultimately
    drained into one of two large ducts:
    right lymphatic duct or thoracic duct
  13. drains the right upper
    arm and the right side of the head and thorax
    right lymphatic duct
  14. arises from the cisterna chyli and drains the rest of the body
    thoracic duct
  15. Parasitic worms clog up lymph vessels,
    leading to enormous swelling (edema).
    elaphantitis
  16. scattered reticular tissue elements in every body organ with
    many macrophages and lymphocytes
    diffuse lymphatic tissue
  17. diffuse lymphatic tissue includes:
    • mucosa-associated
    • lymphatic tissues (MALT)
  18. solid, spherical bodies consisting of tightly packed reticular elements
    and cells
    lymphatic nodules
  19. Have a germinal center composed of maturing B cells
    lymphatic nodules
  20. Peyer’s Patches, Tonsils is an example of:
    lymphatic nodules
  21. isolated clusters of lymphoid tissue, similar to
    tonsils, found in small intestine (esp. ileum)
    peyers patches
  22. Destroy bacteria and preventing them from breaching the intestinal wall
    peyers patches
  23. Located in oro/nasopharynx, filters aiire and removes foreign materials
    tonsils
  24. three types of tonsils:
    pharyngeal (adenoids), paletine, lingual
  25. in nasopharynx (near auditory tube)
    pharyngeal tonsils
  26. located on either side
    of oral cavity
    palatine tonsils
  27. located at root of tongue
    lungual tonsils
  28. the principal lymphoid
    organs of the body
    lymp nodes
  29. occur near the body
    surface in thoracic, abdominal, intestinal/mesenteric, popliteal, inguinal, axillary, and cervical regions of the body
    aggregations of nodes
  30. swell with infection or cancer
    lymph nodes
  31. The cortex contains follicles with germinal centers, heavy with maturing B cells, The deep cortex houses T cells in transit
    lymph nodes
  32. largest lymph node organ
    spleen
  33. Site of B lymphocyte production, Cleanses the
    blood, Stores products of RBC breakdown for later reuse, macrophages salvage and store iron for later use by bone marrow, Site of fetal erythrocyte production (normally ceases after birth), Stores blood platelets
    spleen
  34. Surrounded by a fibrous capsule, it has trabeculae that extend inward and contains lymphocytes, macrophages, and
    huge numbers of erythrocytes
    spleen
  35. two distinct areas of the spleen are:
    white pulp and red pulp
  36. area containing mostly
    lymphocytes suspended on reticular fibers and involved in immune functions
    (lymphocyte maturation
    white pulp
  37. remaining splenic tissue concerned with disposing
    of worn-out RBCs and bloodborne pathogens
    red pulp
  38. A bilobed organ that secrets hormones (thymosin) that cause maturation of T lymphocytes, size varies with age, stops growing during adolescense then eventually atropies, important in development of the entire immune system
    thymus
  39. red bone marrow forms in children in:
    medullary cavity of long bones
  40. red bone marrow forms in adults :
    axial skeleton and proximal heads of humerus and femurs
  41. site of lymphocyte and macrophage development
    red bone marrow
  42. Contains sinusoids with macrophages that destroy
    malformed blood cells
    red bone marrow
  43. responds quickly; results in same response with each exposure
    to pathogen; consists of first line of defense and second line of defense
    innate immunity
  44. physical barrier: intact skin and mucosa to prevent entry of microorganisms
    Includes: skin and mucous membrane’s defenses (sebum, acidity, lysozyme/defensins, mucus)
    first line of defense
  45. internal defenses: antimicrobial chemicals, phagocytes, and other cells, Inhibits spread of invaders throughout the body, Inflammation is its hallmark and most
    important mechanism
    second line of defense
  46. adaptive (specific) immunity includes:
    includes third line of defense
  47. mounts attack against particular foreign substances, Takes longer to react than the innate system, Works in
    conjunction with the innate system, Results from exposure to a pathogen (acquired), Memory Cells
    are produced that reduce response time upon 2nd exposure to pathogen
    Two Types:
    Humoral (aka Antibody Mediated) and Cellular (aka Cell-Mediated)
    Immunity
    third line of defense
  48. anti body mediated
    humoral
  49. cell mediated
    cellular immunity
  50. §Antibodies bind to extracellular pathogens (antigens on bacteria, bacterial
    toxins, venoms, allergens, and free viruses) and present them to phagocytes and
    complement
    humoral immunity
  51. Employs
    B-Lymphocytes (made/mature in bone marrow)
    which become either memory cells or plasma cells (that secrete antibodies
    humoral immunity
  52. examples of anitbodies
    IgD, IgM, IgA (in breast milk), IgG (crosses placenta), IgE (allergic rxns)
  53. four ways to acquire humoral immunity:
    active natural, active artificial, passive natural, passive artificial
  54. antibodies
    produced in response to natural exposure to pathogen
    active natural
  55. antibodies
    produced in response to vaccination;
    may require “booster.”
    active artificial
  56. person
    produces own antibodies; long lasting
    active immunity
  57. antibodies
    come from outside source; temporary
    passive immunity
  58. antibodies passed from mother to fetus
    across placenta or in breast milk.
    passive natural
  59. antibodies injected from serum (e.g. gamma globulin, antivenom, antitoxins for tetanus,rabies).
    passive artificial
  60. Lymphocytes attack intracellular pathogens (viral-infected cells and
    parasite-infected cells) or diseased host cells (cancer cells and foreign
    tissue graft cells).
    Employs T Lymphocytes
    (made in bone marrow; mature in thymus)
    which either become memory cells or become Helper T cells,
    Cytotoxic T cells, Memory T cells, and
    Suppressor T Cells (among others).
    Attack and Lyse “Foreign” Cells.
    cellular (cell mediated) immunity

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