Cardic 1

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  1. What percentage of the heart lies left of the midline of the sternum?
  2. What is the tough fibrerous sac around the heart?
  3. What is the heart muscle called?
  4. What is Anastomosis?
    Communication between 2 or more vessels
  5. what does anastomosis allow?
    Collateral circulation- providing an alternative path for blood flow in case of a blockage- telephone ( person to person)
  6. is which part of the heart does the flow process begin?
  7. From the RA to the RV what valve has to open?
    Tricuspid valve
  8. What valve is between the LA and LV
    Mitral valve
  9. Where does the RA pump the blood into?
  10. From the RV where does the blood flow go?
    Pulm artery
  11. From the Pul Art which chamber of the heart does the blood flow into?
  12. What Vein does blood go through to get to the LA?
    Pulm vein - carries o2
  13. What chamber of the heart pumps into the aorta?
  14. What are the 2 antrioventricular valves? av valves?
    Tricuspid - right side mitral(bicuspid) left side
  15. what are the 2 semilunar valves?
    aortic and pulmonary
  16. preload is after which phase?
  17. what is SOAP?
    systole open aortic and pulmonic
  18. in which phase does the tricuspant and mitral valve open?
  19. in which phase are the aortic and pulmonic valve open?
  20. cardiac cycle
  21. the time from one contraction to the next
  22. during what phase is the myocardium contracting?
  23. during which phase is the myocardium relaxing?
  24. which phase does the cardic chamber fill?
  25. what is preload?
    the pressure in the ventricales at the end of diastole
  26. what is afterload?
    the resistance against which the heart must pump
  27. what is the frank starling mech?
    the more the heart stretches the more forful the contraction
  28. what is cardia output?
    stroke volume plus pulse
  29. what is bp?
    cardiac output plus vasomotor tone
  30. what is the vasomotor tone?
    the sqeezing of the vessels
  31. how does dopamine work?
    my contracting blood vessels to raise the vasomotor tone
  32. what is ej fraction?
    the ratio of blood pumped out by the ventricales.
  33. what is a normal ej fraction?
    65-70 %
  34. what ej fraction do chf patients have?
    40 or under
  35. what ej fraction does a pace maker get placed?
    20 or below
  36. what is the average stroke volume?
    70 ml 2/3 of the blood
  37. what is the flow of blood in the peripheral circulation system?


    • arteriloes
    • cappillaries
    • venous system
  38. What kind of cells is blood flow regulated by?
    smooth muscle cells ( precapillary sphincters)
  39. what is the main funcation of capillary network?
    nutrient and product waste exchange
  40. what is cell death called?
  41. what is sub-endocardial damage?
    cell injury to the inside of the heart muscle
  42. what is transmural damage?
    full thickness injury to the heart
  43. psns slows down your heart rate?
  44. sns gives off which hormones to raise bp?
    epi and norepi
  45. does the psns control the entire heart?
    no- only the atria- sa node adn av node
  46. what is chronotropy?
    a receptor what controls the heart rate
  47. what is inotropy?
    a receptor that controls teh contractile force of the heart
  48. what is dromotropy?
    a receptor that controls the speed of the electrical conduction
  49. what is contractility?
    ability for the heart to contract
  50. what is excitability?
    ability to respond to stimulation
  51. what is conduction?
    ability to conduct impulses
  52. what is automaticity?
    ability to depolarize itself
  53. does the heart repolorize during contraction or after?
  54. what kind of cells are within the heart?
    worker cell and pacemaker cells
  55. how do worker cells work?
    cell rests at 90 mv - ports open and sodiem and potassium rush in - this sparks the cells and they go off
  56. how do pacemaker cells work?
    patassium leaks out until the cell his -50mv and then fires
  57. What are the electolytes that have a role in the heart cell function?
    Sodium- depolorization

    Calcium- depolorization adn contraction

    Potassium- influences repolarization

    masnesium- effects cell membrane
  58. what is the most preventant cation outside the cell?
  59. what is the most prevenlant cation inside the cell?
  60. how many times a min do SA node usually fire?
  61. how mant times a min do av junction pacemaker cells fire?
  62. how many times a min do purkinji fibers usually fire?
  63. what is aberrant conduction?
    cell to cell conduction
  64. what discs are between the muscle cells that help speed up impulses through the myocardium?
    intercalated discs
  65. What is a syncytium?
    areas of the heart that start the firing of the cells.....all of nothing
  66. what is a premature beat?
    fired earlier then expected
  67. what is an escape beat?
    fired later than expected - sa node didnt go off so av junction or purkinji fiber took over
  68. what is ectopic beats?
    fired from a different area than normal
  69. what is a blocked beat?
    delayed of blocked impulses
  70. what is bradycardia?
    slower then 60
  71. what is tachcardia?
    fast then 100
  72. what is accelerated?
    faster than it should be but not quite 100
Card Set:
Cardic 1
2012-02-02 20:06:19

Cardiac part 1
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