Micro

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nicstrain
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13234
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Micro
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2010-04-12 23:19:51
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Microbiology
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  1. Lactose Formers
    "CEEK"
    • Citrobacter
    • Enterobacter
    • E. Coli (K1 capsule most important)
    • Klebsiella
  2. Non-lactose formers
    "SHYPS"
    • Shigella *
    • Yersinia enterolytica (AKA Pestis) *
    • * Motile: make H2S
    • Proteus**
    • Salmonella**
    • ** Non motile: noH2S
  3. May lack color
    • "These rascals may microscopically lack color"
    • Treponema
    • Ricksetta
    • Mycobacterium
    • Mycoplasma
    • Legionella
    • Chlamydia
  4. Increase cAMP
    "CAPE"
    • Cholera
    • Anthracis (poly D glutamate capsule)
    • Pertusis (via Gi)
    • E. Coli (LT entertoxin)
  5. Have Capsule
    [ie... are Quellung Reaction (+)]
    • "Some killers have pretty nice capsules"
    • Sterp. pneumoniae
    • Klebsiella
    • HiB
    • Pseudamona aeroginosa
    • Neisseria meningitis
    • Cryptococcus neoformans (only encasulated fungal pathogen)
  6. Dimorphic Fungi
    • "Can Also Have Both Shapes"
    • Cocciodes
    • Aspergillus
    • Histoplasma
    • Blastomyces
    • Sprothrix schenkii
  7. Have beta Prophage
    "OBED"
    • O = Salmonella
    • B = Botulinum
    • E = Erythrogenic strep
    • D = Diptheria
  8. Spore Forming Bacteria
    Bacilus and Clostridium (have calcium di-picolinate)
  9. IgA Proteases
    • Neisseria (meningitidis and gonnorhoae)
    • Haemophilus Influenzae (needs factors V and X for growth)
    • S. pneumoniae
    • w/ this activity these bugs are able to colonize the oral mucosa
  10. Widal Test
    Salmonella (Salmonella begins in ileocecal region) agglutination indicates Abs to O, H, Vi Salmunella Ags
  11. Wayson's Stain
    Yersinia
  12. Pneumonic Plaque Transmission
    Person to person cf w/ Bubonic plaque that was via infected flea
  13. Splenectomy
    Predisposes to septicemia
  14. Invasins
    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis
  15. Fusiform
    Vincent's trench mouth
  16. S. viridans
    Dextran mediated adherence
  17. Obligate Aerobes
    Pseudomonas & Mycobacterium
  18. Obligate Anaerobes
    Clostridium, Actinomyces, Bacteroides
  19. Staph aureus
    A protein, Catalase +, Coagulase +
  20. Spirochetes
    Treponema, Borrelia, Leptospira
  21. Non Motile Gram (+) Rods
    Corenybacterium D & Nocardia
  22. Acid Fast Organisms
    Mycobacterium; Cryptosporidium; Nocardia (partially); Leginoella micdadei; Isospora
  23. Pigment Producing Bacteria
    • Serrata - red (can cause pseudohemoptysis)
    • Pseudomonas A - piocyanin blue/green
    • Staph aureus - yellow - Protein A
    • Mycobacteria - photo/scoto chromogenic - caritinoid - yellow/orange
    • Corneybacterium D - black/grey - pseudomembrane plaque in throat
    • Bacteroides (Porphyromonas) melaninogenicus - black (heme)
    • E. coli - irredescent green sheen
  24. Bacterial Morphology
    • Pneumococci - lancet shaped diplococci
    • Neisseria - kidney bean shaped diplococci
    • Camphylobacter - gulls' wings/comas
    • Vibrio Cholera - coma shaped
    • Corneybacterium D - club shaped (nonmotile, G+ Rod)
    • Yersinia - safety pin seen in Wayson's stain
  25. Inclusion Bodies
    • Rabies - Negri bodies - intracytoplasmic
    • Pox virus Guarnieri - intracytoplasmic and acidophilic
    • CMV - Owl's eyes - intracytoplasmic and intranuclear
    • HSV - Cowdry bodies - intranuclear
  26. Schistosoma Japonicum Monsoni
    Intestinal - contact w/ bad water
  27. Schistosoma Haematolium
    Vesicular - contact w/ bad water
  28. Non Human Schostosom
    Swimmer's itch - contact w/ bad water
  29. Clonorchichis
    • Chinese liver fluke - eating raw fish
    • Tx - Praziquantel
  30. Fasciola Hepatica
    • Sheep - eating raw fish
    • Tx - Praziquantel
  31. Fasciola Biski
    • Giant intestinal flukes - eating raw fish.
    • Tx - Praziquantel
  32. Paragonimus Westermani
    • Lung fluke - eating raw fish
    • Tx - Praziquantel
  33. Oxidase (+)
    Neiserria and most Gram (-)'s
  34. Micro Aerophilic
    Camphylobacter and Helicobacter
  35. Urease (+)
    • All Proteus - can cause Staghorn/Striuvate calculi (NH4-, Mg2+ stones): alkaline urine
    • Ureaplasma
    • Campylobacter pylori (Helicobacter)
    • Cryptococcus
    • Nocardia
  36. Coagulase (+)
    Staph and Yersenia pestis
  37. Obligate Intracellular Bacteria
    Chlamydia pistacci (don't make own ATP); Mycobacterium lepare; and all Rickettsia except Roachalimea (they make enough ATP to survive)
  38. Protozoa
    Plasmodium; Taxoplasma ghondi; Babesin; Leishmania; Trypanosoma cruzi
  39. Obligate non-intracellular parasites
    Treptonema palidum and Pneumocystis carinii (can not be cultured on inert media but can be found extra cellulary in body )
  40. Haemophilus Factors
    X - protoporphyrin and V - NAD
  41. All cocci are....
    Gram positive except for Neisseria and Moraxella
  42. "Eaton Fried Egg"
    Mycoplasma pneumoniae has fried eggy colonies on Eaton agar (needs cholesterol)
  43. Mycoplasm
    • No cell wall. Membrane has cholesterol. Smallest living bacteria
    • P1 protein inhs ciliary action
    • Fried egg colonies
    • Atypical pneumonia - young adults
  44. Sabrands
    Fungal media
  45. Malassazi furfur
    Spaghetti and meat ball
  46. Measles 3 C's
    • Cough - Coryza - Conjuctivitis
    • Can also have photophobia
    • May lead to subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis
  47. Non motile Bacili and Clostridium
    B. anthracis and C. perfringens
  48. Bloody diarrhea agent
    EIEC - EHEC - Shigella - Yersenia enterocoliticia - Entaemeba histolytica - Salmonella - Campylobacter jejuni
  49. YW-135CA
    N. meningitidis vaccine capsular polysaccharide strains
  50. Indian Ink
    Cryptococcus neoformans
  51. Naegleria causes
    Colonization in the nasal passage after swimming
  52. Need cysyeine for growth
    • "Ella likes cysteine"
    • Francisella
    • Brucella
    • Legionella
    • Pasturella
  53. Endotoxins, G(+) or G(-)
    Gram (-): N. meningitidis
  54. Ecthyma Gangrenosum, seen w/
    pseudomonas aeroginosa. Target shaped skin lesions w/ a black center and red ring surrounding the lesion
  55. Endospores G(+)
    Gram (+): Bacillus and Clostridium - made up of dipicolinate and Keratin
  56. Multi Bran abscess
    Nocardia
  57. Single Brain abscess
    Actinomyces israelli
  58. Increased risk for Strep pneum infection
    Asplenic; Sickle cell anemia; immunocompromising illness
  59. alpha Hemolysis / Optochin sensitive
    Strep. Pneumoniae
  60. alpha Hemolysis / Optochin Resistant
    Strep viridans (subacute endocarditis)
  61. Staph Saprophyticus
    Novobiocin resistant (UTI)
  62. Staph Epidermidis
    Novobiocin sensitive (endocarditis in IVDU's)
  63. Beta Hemolysis / Bacitracin Sensitive
    • Strep. Pyogenes (pharyngitis, scarlet fever, cellulitis, impetigo, Rheumatic fever)
    • Hyaluronic capsule, non-motile; M proteins; Endotoxin A
  64. Beta Hemolysis / Bacitracin Resistant
    Strep Agalactiae (diabetes predisposes to infection)
  65. EFII Ribosylation
    Diptheria toxin and Peudomonas exotoxon A.
  66. Bacillus Anthracis: 3 toxins (work via adenylate cyclase)
    • Protective antigen (PA)
    • lethal factor = toxic macrophages
    • Edema factor = increased cAMP
  67. Woolsorter's Disease
    • Bacillus anthracis
    • DOC - Penicillin
  68. Grows in rice
    Bacillus cereus
  69. Clostridium perfringens
    • Double zone beta hemolysis (test)
    • lecithinase: alpha toxin = lyses RBCs
    • 80% of gas gangrene (myonecrosis) cases
  70. Clostridium difficile
    • 2 toxins - enterotoxin (exotoxin A) and cytotoxin (exotoxin B)
    • pseudomembranous colitis (can be ppt by clindamycin/ampicillin)
  71. Spastic paralysis toxin
    Clostridium tetani toxin
  72. Clostridium botulinum
    bad canned foods have neurotoxin = flaccid paralysis (block Ach release)
  73. Infant Botulinum
    Floppy baby syndrome - preformed toxin in honey
  74. Thayer Martin Agar
    Neisseria ID
  75. DOC for N. gonorrhoeae
    Ceftriazone
  76. K1 E. coli capsular Ag
    Related w/ neonateal meningitis
  77. The A's of Klebsiella
    • Alcoholics
    • Aspiration pneumonia
    • Abscesses in lungs
  78. Rice H2O Diarrhea
    Vibrio Cholera: metabolic acidosis
  79. Raw seafood intoxication
    Vibrio parahemolyticus
  80. Helicobacter Tx
    Bismouth salts; Metronidazole; Tetracycline (or amoxicillin)
  81. Increased risk of P. aeroginosa infection
    Burn patients and cystic fibrosis
  82. Contact lens infection
    Pseudomonas aeroginosa
  83. Cat bites
    Pasteurella multocida
  84. Undulant Fever
    Brucella
  85. Bordet Gengou Agar
    Bordetella pertusis ID
  86. Lowenstein - Jensen medium
    M. tuberculosis ID
  87. Cat scratch disease
    • Bartonella henselae. Leion can resemble Kaposi's sarcoma
    • Toxoplasmosis
  88. Pink eye
    Adenovirus
  89. HLA Gene location
    6p
  90. Parvovirus 19
    Fifth disease: erythema infectiosum (ssDNA) linked w/ sickle cell anemia
  91. Interferon MOA
    Inhibits viral replication (translation or transcription)
  92. Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis
    Seen w/ infections from Enterovirus and coxsackie A
  93. Parainfluenza Causes
    Croup (Laryngotracheobronchitis)
  94. Swimming pool Conjunctivitis
    Adenovirus types 3 and 4
  95. RSV
    Bronchiolitis in infants
  96. Removed tonsils finds what virus
    In 80% adenovirus, in immunosuppressed activation can occur
  97. Bone Fever
    Dengue: group B Togavirus, from the Arbovirus, transmitted by mosquitos
  98. HbsAg
    • Appears in blood soon after infection before onset of acute illness
    • Disappears w/in 4-6 months after start of clinical illness
  99. HbeAg
    • Appears early acute phase, indicates higher risk of transmitting the disease
    • Disappears before HbsAg is gone
  100. Anti-Hbc
    • Present in beginning of clinical illness
    • Seen in "window phse"
  101. Filamentous Bacteria
    Actinomycetes = nocardia; actinomyces; streptomyces
  102. Listeria contaminants
    milk, cheese, vegetables (coleslaw) in recent infections
  103. Shiga Like Toxin
    E. coli 0157/H7: hemorrhagic colitis and hemorrhagic uremic syndrome
  104. Necrotizing Fasciitis
    Group A streptococci
  105. Relapsing fever
    Borrelia recurrentis
  106. Loffler's medium
    Corneybacterium diphtheriae
  107. Chlamydiae Development Cycle
    • Elementary Body: infectious particle that enters the cell
    • Reticulate Body: made from elementary body. Replicates, differentiates and releases elementary bodies to infect other cells
    • With infection you will see glycogen containing inclusions
    • Cell wall lacks muramic acid
  108. Trench fever
    Rochalimaea quintana
  109. "Spotted Fever" Members
    • Rickettssia rickettssii (RSMF) and R. akari (rickettsial pox) in US.
    • R. sibirica (tick typhus in China) and R. australis (typhus in Australia)
  110. Thrush Tx
    Nystatin tx candidiasis of mouth
  111. Rose Bush Thorns
    Have Sporothrix schenckii
  112. Contact lens solution infection
    Acanthamoeba
  113. Filiariasis Causant
    Wucheria bancrofti (infection aka elephantitis and wucheriasis)
  114. Fresh water lake infection
    Causes amebic meningoencephalitis due to Naegleria fowleri
  115. Reduviid bug bite
    Transmits Trypanoma cruzi (Chagas' disease): Romana's sign
  116. Schistosoma Haematobium causes
    Bladder calcification and cancer
  117. Schistosoma Mansoni causes
    Presinusoidal HTN, splenomegaly, esophageal varcies
  118. Snail, intermediate host of ...
    Schistosomiasis
  119. Ixodes scapularis transmitis
    Babesia (clinically resembles malaria) and Borelia burgdorferi
  120. Nantucket protozoa
    Babesia microt
  121. Infection by Tse Tse Fly
    Trypansoma brucei gambiense and rhodiense: African Sleeping Sickness
  122. Infection by sandfly
    Leishmaniasis: mucoutaneous disease by L. braziliensis and visceral disease by L. donovani and dermal Leishman by L. tropica, mexicana, peruviana
  123. Infection by Ixodes tick
    Babesia microti: Babesiosis and Borrelia burgdorferi: lyme disease
  124. Infection by Anopheles Mosquito
    Malaria
  125. Trophozoites w/ "face like" appearance
    Giardia lamblia
  126. Nonseptate Hyphae
    Zygomycosis: Rhizopus and Mucor. Only mycosis w/o septate, infect Ketoacidotic diabetics
  127. Histoplasmosis Geography
    Ohio, Mississippi, Missouri river vallies
  128. Coccidioidomycosis Geography
    Southwestern deserts, California
  129. Blastomycosis Geography
    States east of Mississippi river
  130. Paracoccidioidomycosis Geography
    Latin America
  131. Roseola Infection, aka
    Exanthema Subitum: "sixth disease" (Human Herpes Virus - 6 dsDNA, enveloped)
  132. Herpangina
    "Hand-Foot-and-Mouth" disease: Coxsackie A (Picornavirus +ssRNA)
  133. Orthomyxovirus
    • -ssRNA, enveloped virus
    • Spike Glycoproteins (peplomeres): HA = Hemagluttinin & NA - Neuraminidase. These Peplomeres are what gives the virus antigenis variation
    • Influenza A & B
  134. Paramyxovirus
    • -RNA, enveloped. Most common cause of respiratory infection in kids
    • Mumps
    • Croup (Parainfluenza virus)
    • Rubeola (Measles virus)
    • RSV
  135. Togavirus
    • +ssRNA, enveloped
    • 3 day measles: german measles: Rubella/ Rubivirus
    • Encephalitis virus: Alphaviruses: Eastern (more sensitive) and Western Equine Encephalitis
  136. Flavivirus
    • Dengue Fever - icterus and hemorrhage w/ blac vomit
    • Yellow fever
    • St. Louis Encephalitis - no hepatitis or hemorrhage
  137. Bunyavirus
    • -ssRNA, enveloped
    • California Encephalitis - sever bifrontal headaches
    • Hantavirus - hemorrhagic fever w/ acute respiratory distress syndrome
  138. Diphtheria: ABCDEFG
    • Adenopathy
    • Beta prophage encodes the exotoxin
    • Corneybacteria is Club shaped
    • Diphtheria
    • Elongation Factor II
    • Granules (metachromatic)
  139. Only ssDNA
    Parvovirus: "Part of a virus"
  140. Only dsRNA
    Reovirus, "Repeat Ovirus"
  141. Naked RNA
    "Naked for CPR" Calcivirus, Picornoviurs, Reovirus
  142. 2 Circular DNA's
    Papovavirus and Hepadnavirus
  143. BK
    • Papovaviurs
    • Seen in kidney transplant pts (causes renal disease)
  144. Hepadna, Retrovirus?
    No, but has reverse transcriptase
  145. Picornovirus: "PERCH"
    Poiliovirus, Echo, Rhino, Coxsackie, Hep A
  146. Hemorrhagic Fevers
    Filovirus and Bunyavirus (Hantavirus)
  147. Segmented Virus
    All RNA: Orthomyxo, Arena; Bunya; Reo
  148. Eclipse Phase
    No internal virus. 1 total virus per cel
  149. Latent Phase
    No external virus. Extracellular virus found
  150. Naked Capsid Virus
    Nucleocapsid. DNA or RNA + structural proteins
  151. Enveloped Virus
    Membrane. Nucleocapsid + Glycoprotein
  152. Interferon
    Non virus specific. Works by RNA endonuclease = digests viral DNA + inh viral prot synthesis
  153. AIDS structural proteins
    Gag, pol, env
  154. AIDS regulatory Proteins
    Tat, rev, nef
  155. AIDS gp41 env prot
    Transmembrane
  156. AIDS gp120 env prot
    Surface
  157. AIDS p17 gag prot
    Matrix
  158. AIDS p24 gag prot
    Capsid
  159. AIDS p7p9 gag prot
    Nucleocapsid
  160. DNA Virus
    AHHPPP

    • A = Adeno
    • H = Herpes - E
    • H = Hepadna - E, Circ
    • P = Pax - E,Brick rep in cyto, Circ
    • P = Parvo - ss
    • P = Papova - ico rep in Nuc
  161. (+) RNA Virus
    CPRFTC

    • C = Calici
    • P = Picorno
    • R = Reo - E, R-Tase & Rep in Nuc
    • F = Flavi - E
    • T = Toga - E
    • C = Corona - E, Helical, Ico (+) linear, No segment, rep in cyto
  162. (-) RNA Virus
    FORPAB

    • F = Filo
    • O = Orthomyxo - 8
    • R = Rhabdo - Bullet
    • P = Paramyxo
    • A = Arena - 2, antisense
    • B = Bunya - 3, antisense, (-) E Helical linear, non seg
  163. Hepatitis Window Period
    After HbsAg disappears and before HbsAb appears
  164. Hepatitis A
    Picorna
  165. Hepatitis B
    Hepadna
  166. Hepatitis C
    Flavi
  167. Hepatitis D
    Delta
  168. Hepatitis E
    Calici
  169. Downey Type III Cells
    EBV
  170. Infection by Aedes Mosquito
    Yellow Fever: Flavivirus: Black vomit, jaundice, high fever
  171. "Hot T- Bone stEAk" ILs
    • IL1 = increase temp: HOT
    • IL2 = stimulate T cells
    • IL3 = stimulate Bone Marrow stem cells' growth and differentation (GM CSF)
    • IL4 = stimulate IgE (& IgG)
    • IL5 = stimulate IgA (& eosinophils)
  172. ILs Secreted by CD4's
    IL2, IL4, IL%, IFN gamma
  173. ILs secreted by macrophages
    IL2 and TNF alpha
  174. C5a
    • neutral chemotaxis
    • when it is w/ C3a, participates in anaphylaxis
  175. C5 Convertase
    • when both alternative and classic pathways come together
    • Alternative: C3b, Bb, C3b + C3a --> C5
    • Classic: 2b, 3b, C3a + C4b --> C5
  176. Only Richettssia not Intracellular
    Quintana
  177. Plasmodium Life Cycle
    • Sporozoites: from blood to liver
    • Primary tissue schizant
    • Trophozoites: in RBC
    • Erythrocytic schizont
    • Merozoite: ruptured RBC
    • Gametozyte
    • Zygote: inside the mosquito
  178. Acanthamoeba
    Star shaped cysts
  179. Mucor, Rhizopus, Absidia
    Nonseptate, filamentous, 90 degree branching, indian in, capsular halos
  180. Cryptococcus Neoformans
    Monomorphic
  181. Candida
    Yeast normally, pseudo & true hyphae in tissue infections
  182. Aspergillus Fumigatum
    45 degree branching point, asoc'd w/ CF and burn pts
  183. Cocciodes
    Hyphae in wild. Artroconidia. Arthocondida and Hyphae, Sherules w/ endospores
  184. Histoplasma Cap
    Hyphae in wild. Microcondida w/ tuberculate macrocondida. Fac intracellular. In the tissue its a yeast w/ a small neck
  185. Blastomycosis
    Hyphae in wild
  186. Sporothrix Schenkii
    Hyphae in wild. Pots iodide in milk. Pneumonia in alcoholics
  187. PCP
    Obligate parasite. Kills type I pneumo cells. Ground glass
  188. Gram (-) bugs w/ Exotoxins
    • E. coli
    • V. Cholera
    • Bordetella pertussis
  189. Dermatophytes
    • Trichophyton: SHN
    • Microsporium: SH
    • Epidermophyton: SN
    • Tinea tavus: perm hair loss
  190. Trophozoite
    Diarrheal/common infection - transmission and diagnosis
    • Transmission / Diagnosis
    • E. Histolitica - cysts / trophozoites or cysts in stool
    • Giardia - cysts / trophozoites or cysts in stool
    • Cryptosporidium - cysts / acid fast oocytes
    • Balantium C. - cysts / trophozoites or cysts in stool
    • Trichomonas V. - Trophozoites / motile trophozoites
  191. Malaria types
    • Fever / Fever Spikes / cell features
    • Vivax - benign 3 degrees / 48 hrs / enlarged host cell
    • Ovale - benign 3 degrees / 48 hrs / oval or jagged
    • malariae - 4 deg of Malarial / 72 hrs regular / crescent
    • Falciparum - malignant 3 deg

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