Mental Health Nursing

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Author:
plbernal
ID:
132367
Filename:
Mental Health Nursing
Updated:
2012-02-02 01:07:31
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Vocabulary Chapter Three
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Biological Basis for Understanding Psychotropic Drugs
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  1. Antagonists
    Drugs that block or depress the normal response of a specific receptor by only partly fitting the receptor site
  2. Antianxiety drugs
    Drugs prescribed, usually on a short term basis, to reduce anxiety. May be referred to as anxiolytics
  3. Anticholinesterase Drugs
    Drugs that prevent the destruction of acetylcholine within the parasympathetic nervous system
  4. Atypical antipsychotics
    A classification of antipsychotic medications, also known as second-generation antipsychotics, which commonly interact with serotonin as well as dopamine receptors.
  5. Circadian Rhythms
    A 24-hour biological rhythm that influences specific regulatory functions such as the sleep/wake cycle, body temperature, and hormonal and neurotransmitter secretions.
  6. Conventional antipsychotics
    Typical antipsychotics and first generation antipsychotics, which work by D2 receptor antagonism.
  7. Hypnotic
    A classification of drugs used to promote sleep
  8. Limbic system
    The part of the brain that is related to emotions and is referred to by some as the “emotional brain”. It is involved in the mediation of fear and anxiety; anger and aggression; love joy and hope; and sexuality and social behavior
  9. Lithium
    An antimanic drug that stabilizes the manic phase of a bipolar disorder. When effective it can modify future manic episodes and protect against future depressive episodes
  10. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)
    A classification of antidepressants that inhibit monoamine oxidase, an enzyme that breaks down amines such as serotonin and norepinephrine.
  11. Mood stabilizer
    Classes of drugs used to treat mood disorders; include lithium and anticonvulsants
  12. Neurons
    Specialized cells in the central nervous system.
  13. Neurotransmitter
    A chemical substance that functions as a neural messenger. Released from the axon terminal of the presynaptic neuron when stimulated by an electrical impulse
  14. Pharmacokinetics
    The physiological actions, effects, and responses of the body to drugs; this includes absorption, distribution, excretion, onset of action, duration of effect, and the influence of substances such as enzymes.
  15. Receptors
    Protein molecules located within or on the outer membrane of cells of various tissues, such as neurons, muscle, and blood vessels.
  16. Reticular activating system (RAS)
    The part if the brain stem that mediates alertness, arousal, and motivation; serves to filter out repetitive stimuli to prevent overload
  17. Reuptake
    The return of neurotransmitters to the presynaptic cell after communication with receptors on the postsynaptic cell
  18. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
    First line antidepressants that block the reuptake of serotonin, permitting serotonin to act for an extended period at the synaptic binding sites in the brain
  19. Synapse
    The gap between the membrane of one neuron and the membrane of another neuron.
  20. Therapeutic index
    The ratio of the therapeutic dose of a drug and the toxic dose of a drug
  21. Tricyclic antidepressants
    Drugs that inhibit the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin by the presynaptic neurons in the CNS, increasing the amount of time norepinephrine and serotonin are available to the postsynaptic receptors.

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