Microbiology exam 1.2

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  1. History of Procaryotic Cells
    they existed over 3.5 billion years ago.
  2. Procaryotic cells

    (Lack what?)
    • Lack a membrane bound nucleus (DNA in contact with cytoplasm), and a double membrane bound organelles
    • (mitochondria and chloroplasts)
  3. Procaryotic cells
    Respiration through Plasma Membrane.

    • Cell walls are made of Peptidoglycan.
    • -they are thick/ rigid. cell walls are for shaping things.
    • and protection of water.
    • -if there is lack of cell wall it is Mycoplasm or L-forms
    • (Mutant cells not able to synthesis due to mutation. L stands for Lister, named after Lister Institute )

    • Chromosome is a circle...
    • Sexual Recombination - no meiosis and transfer of DNA fragments.
  4. Lysozymes
    • It is found in Lysosomes.
    • this breaks down cell walls of bacteria.

    • it attacks peptidogylcan. (which are cell walls)
    • most affective on Gram Positive.
  5. Gram Positive Vs. Gram Negative
    named after Hans Christian Gram.

    • positive- little amount of lipids. thick walls.- purple
    • negative- large amount of lipids. thin walls.- red
  6. Glycocalyx
    Capsule or slime layer.

    this protects bacterium from phagocyte (white blood cells), so it can attach itself to inert surface.

    -found outside of the cell walls of bacterium (well yeah, how else will it attach itself.)
  7. Pasteuization of Milk
    • kills bacteria and undesirable effects.
    • bacteria which makes the milk "lopy"

    • Pneumococci are divided into various types based on nature of their capsules ‑ also milk becomes "ropy" when contaminated by encapsulated
    • bacteria. ??
  8. Procaryotic One Chromosomes
    there is one and it is circular.

    • only fragment of DNA. formed plasids is about 2-250genes.
    • if transferred- it can be incorporated in receiving cell b's chromosomes.
  9. Genome
    contains DNA info. and the nucleoid is like a nucleus.

    unlike eurcaryotic's nucleus.
  10. Ribosomes
    site of protein mol synthesis. think of dna and rna.
  11. cytoplasmic inclusion and vacuoles
    • masses organic mol "food"
    • cyanopriycin granules. (source of nitrogen)

    • inorganic mol.
    • volutin mol. in cytoplasm of corynebacterium.

    • aquasprillium sp.
    • glows- magnitite granules.
    • to orient itself to the poles moves north bound (towards the poles) or random.

    gas vacuoles- make things float.
  12. Endospores of bacteria
    form inside of the cytoplasm or a growning veg. bacteria cell.

    • -metabol. dormant.
    • when conditions are not favorable it makes spores.
    • so it's offspring can carry on?

    • veg cells- no spores. in a good environment.
    • veg with spores in poor environment.
    • takes about 6-8 hours to make.

    resistant a lot of harsh things. anitbiothics, disinfect, antiseptic, heat, food source, uv radiation.
  13. Bacillus Anthracis
    • cause anthrax. (disease)
    • the spores are harmful to a person.
  14. Clostridium Botulinum
    cause Botulism (food poisoning)

    • especially in can food. all the bacteria aren't cooked.
    • some a resistant to heat at certain temp.

    - like 110 degrees. which is above boiling point of water.
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Microbiology exam 1.2
Microbiology exam 1.2
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