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History of Procaryotic Cells
they existed over 3.5 billion years ago.
- Lack a membrane bound nucleus (DNA in contact with cytoplasm), and a double membrane bound organelles
- (mitochondria and chloroplasts)
Respiration through Plasma Membrane.
- Cell walls are made of Peptidoglycan.
- -they are thick/ rigid. cell walls are for shaping things.
- and protection of water.
- -if there is lack of cell wall it is Mycoplasm or L-forms
- (Mutant cells not able to synthesis due to mutation. L stands for Lister, named after Lister Institute )
- Chromosome is a circle...
- Sexual Recombination - no meiosis and transfer of DNA fragments.
- It is found in Lysosomes.
- this breaks down cell walls of bacteria.
- it attacks peptidogylcan. (which are cell walls)
- most affective on Gram Positive.
Gram Positive Vs. Gram Negative
named after Hans Christian Gram
- positive- little amount of lipids. thick walls.- purple
- negative- large amount of lipids. thin walls.- red
Capsule or slime layer.
this protects bacterium from phagocyte (white blood cells), so it can attach itself to inert surface.
-found outside of the cell walls of bacterium (well yeah, how else will it attach itself.)
Pasteuization of Milk
- kills bacteria and undesirable effects.
- bacteria which makes the milk "lopy"
- Pneumococci are divided into various types based on nature of their capsules ‑ also milk becomes "ropy" when contaminated by encapsulated
- bacteria. ??
Procaryotic One Chromosomes
there is one and it is circular.
- only fragment of DNA. formed plasids is about 2-250genes.
- if transferred- it can be incorporated in receiving cell b's chromosomes.
contains DNA info. and the nucleoid is like a nucleus.
unlike eurcaryotic's nucleus.
site of protein mol synthesis. think of dna and rna.
cytoplasmic inclusion and vacuoles
- masses organic mol "food"
- cyanopriycin granules. (source of nitrogen)
- inorganic mol.
- volutin mol. in cytoplasm of corynebacterium.
- aquasprillium sp.
- glows- magnitite granules.
- to orient itself to the poles moves north bound (towards the poles) or random.
gas vacuoles- make things float.
Endospores of bacteria
form inside of the cytoplasm or a growning veg. bacteria cell.
- -metabol. dormant.
- when conditions are not favorable it makes spores.
- so it's offspring can carry on?
- veg cells- no spores. in a good environment.
- veg with spores in poor environment.
- takes about 6-8 hours to make.
resistant a lot of harsh things. anitbiothics, disinfect, antiseptic, heat, food source, uv radiation.
- cause anthrax. (disease)
- the spores are harmful to a person.
- especially in can food. all the bacteria aren't cooked.
- some a resistant to heat at certain temp.
- like 110 degrees. which is above boiling point of water.