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2012-02-02 03:10:24

all living things
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  1. Louis Pastuer:
    made advancements in the 19th century in microbiology
  2. Leeuwenhoek:
    was the first to observe microscopic life (blood, plaque, algae)
  3. Koch Disease:
    know as T.B.
  4. Bacteria:
    know as Bacteriology
  5. Algae:
    know as phcology
  6. Protozons:
    know as protosology
  7. Viruses:
    know as virology
  8. Bacteria:
    • -prokatyotic
    • -no nucleus
    • -cell type is simple
  9. Bacterias cell size:
    0.5-5.0 microns
  10. Bacteria is considered?
  11. Herteratrophic:
    human (organic molecules)
  12. Bacteria, effects what in the Ecosystem:
    • -some cause diseases (ecoli, saminalia, strep, tetnius)
    • -very few cause diseases
  13. Nitrogen Fixation:
    nitrogen fixing bacteria
  14. Bacteria in Decomposing:
    • this is when living organisms metabloize
    • ex. (dead animal on the road decomposing gives back carbon dioxide in the air and nutirents to the animals and plants.
  15. Biofules:
    corn, the other carbohydrate
  16. Alage:
    • -eukaryotic
    • -single cell (unicellular)
    • -multicellular (colonies)
  17. Alage cell size:
    100 microns
  18. Alage's habitat:
    it can with stand very cold and very hot tempeatures
  19. Alage effects:
    • -photosynthetic
    • -primary producer of organic molecules
  20. what is the by product of photosynthesis?
  21. Few alage produce toxins:
    Ex. the "red tide"...harmful alage that bloomed in the Gulf of Mexico and made the water appear red from the microorganisms.
  22. Fungi:
    (unicellular) yeast and (multicellular) molds,mildows and molds)
  23. Fungi's cell size:
    a few to 100 microns
  24. Fungis habitat:
    only orgnic matter
  25. fungis effects:
    decomposing of any naturally occuring organic molecules.
  26. Non-Biodegradable:
    non living organisms can breakdown this stuff
  27. Monera:
  28. Protista:
    unicellular and colonies (protozon, alage)
  29. Plantae:
    cell wall photosynthetic and atrophic
  30. Fungi:
    cell wall, made of (chitin)
  31. Animalia:
    lacks a cell wall, hetero, eukaryotic, mulitcellular (only in amimals)
  32. Archaebacteria:
    live in harsh enviorments
  33. Kingdom:
    man and animal
  34. Phylum:
  35. Class:
  36. Order:
  37. Family:
  38. Genus:
    homo (noun)
  39. Species:
    sapians (verb)
  40. Cell Structure and Functions...
    Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic
  41. Prokaryotic:
    • -bacteria
    • -not complex, no nucleus, and no mitocchondria
  42. Eukaryotic:
    • (plants, animals, fungi, and protozoans)
    • (cellulose and chitin)
  43. Cell Envelope:
    -very thin

    -bi-layer of phospholipids and protein molecules

    -very flexible, selectively permeable
  44. Cell Wall:
    • very thick and riged, the riged body determins the cells shape
    • -the cell wall provides protection
    • (from loss or gain of water)
  45. 1 meter:
    1,000 millimeters
  46. 1mm:
    1,000 microns
  47. 1 meter:
    1,000,000 microns
  48. 1mm:
    1/1,000,000 of a micron
  49. antibodies, foods such as mushrooms and cheese do what?
    produce useful products
  50. Protozoan's:
    • -eukaryotic
    • -unicellular (some colinies)
    • -herterotrophic
  51. Protozon's habitat:
    live in water, soil, and on the bodies of other life forms.
  52. what are the 3 types of symbioses:


  53. Protozoans cell size:
  54. effects of protozoans:
    they cause decomposition and pathogyn's
  55. Commensalism:
    • -two species
    • -one benifts form the other and on one is affected
  56. Mutualism:
    both species benefit, one doesnt effect the other.
  57. Parasitism:
    human and mosquitoes
  58. Viruses:
    • not all are cellular (parasite)
    • - no independent immune system
    • -they are obligated, intrcellular parasites of hosts cells
  59. cell size of a virus:
    they are 1/1,000 of a micron and are harmful
  60. the habitat of a virus:
    all living organisms
  61. the effects of the virus:
    it kills the host of the cell
  62. Bacteria:
    few bateria are without a cell wall, in bateria the shape will be off.
  63. Mycoplasmas:
    are bacteria that naturally lack a cell wall
  64. L-Forms:
    naturally arise form mutaiton in the wall forming genes.

    -they also can be induced artifically by treatments.
  65. what the L-Forms do?
    breaks down cell wall material of certain bacteria

    -some bacteria have posionous cell wall material
  66. Glycocalyx:
    • -is a capsule or silver layer
    • -slimy secretion of cell membrane
    • -located ext. to the cell wall
  67. the thickness of Glycocalyx:
    • it varies on the enviormental conditions
    • (98%, H2O and 2% polysacch or polypeptide)
  68. Strptococcus pneumonia is caused by:
  69. Streptococcus pneumonia has __ strains?
    75 different strains
  70. Pasteurization:
    milk kills bacteria and pathogens which the bacteria causes the milk to become "ropy"
  71. Biofilms:
    • the glue of life
    • ex. (build up on the toliet bowl, or shower, algae on the sides of the swiming pool and plaque on your teeth)
  72. Genome:
    eukaryotic cell "true nucleus" 3-700x more that bacteria.
  73. Chromosome shapes are:
  74. Nucleoid:
    mass of DNA molecules/"naked DNA"
  75. during___the___is arranged into multiple chromosomes (liner)
    mitosis, DNA
  76. what are the 3 types of plasmid transfer:
    • 1. conjunction
    • 2. tranformation
    • 3.transduction
  77. Conjunction:
    needs (pili) to attatch species and the formation of a bridge to transport DNA
  78. Transformation:
    eats the host, (hazard) not as controlled
  79. Trandsuction:
  80. Ex. of new phenotype:
    "recombinant bacteria": (recombination of genetic material)
  81. New Phenotype:
    • -antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria
    • -species which produce useful products/service.
  82. what is signficant about ribosomes:
    function is proteinsynthys, site of protein molecules
  83. prok. cells have to have___they are smaller in___than ____:
    ribosomes, prok, euk.
  84. cytoplasmic inclusions & vacuolos:
    they are visable with a light microscope & organic matter..."food"
  85. Cyanophycin granules:
    source of Nitrogen
  86. Gas vacuolas
    make things float
  87. Bacillus anthracis:
    causes anthrax
  88. Clostridium botulinume:
    botulism (food posining)