BIOL302 ex3 ch23.txt

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BIOL302 ex3 ch23.txt
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biol 302 anatomy chapter 23 respiratory
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  1. CH 23
    Respiratory
  2. NAME FUNCTIONS OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM (6)
    GAS EXCHANGE, BLOOD PH, OLFACTORY, SOUNDS, EXCRETION, ACE AND BLOOD CLOTS
  3. GAS EXCHANGE
    INTAKE OXYGEN AND DELIVER TO BODY CELLS, ELIMINATE CARBOND DIOXIDE PRODUCED BY BODY CELLS
  4. OLFACTORY
    Contains receptors for sense of smell
  5. Sounds
    Produces vocal sounds (phonation)-->larynx
  6. Excretion
    Small amounts of water and heat are secreted during exhale
  7. ACE and blood clots
    ACE converts Ang I to Ang II; lungs filter blood clots
  8. What surrounds each alveoli
    Pulmonary capillaries
  9. Where does gas exchange take place
    Pulmonary capillaries
  10. What makes surfactant
    Type II alveolar cells
  11. What membrane do gases cross during exchange
    Respiratory
  12. What kind of cells make ACE
    Type I alveolar
  13. What is pulmonary ventilation
    Breathing
  14. Pulmonary ventilation/breathing involves exchange of air between ___ and ___
    Atmosphere and lungs
  15. Where does pulmonary ventilation exchange take place
    Pulmonary capillaries and alveoli
  16. What is another name for pulmonary respiration
    External respiration
  17. What is pulmonary respiration
    Exchange of gases between alveoli and pulmonary capillaries
  18. What happens in external respiration
    Pulmonary capillary blood gains oxygen and loses carbon dioxide
  19. What is another name for internal respiration
    Tissue respiration
  20. What is internal/tissue respiration
    Exchange of gases between blood in systemic capillaries and tissue cells
  21. Gas exchange in internal/tissue respiration
    Blood loses oxygen, gains carbon dioxide
  22. When does cellular respiration (ATP formation) occur
    During internal respiration
  23. Where does cellular respiration take place
    Mitochondria
  24. What happens during inhalation
    Lungs expand, lung volume increases, pressure in lungs decrease
  25. Pressure during inhalation
    Lung pressure lower than atmospheric pressure
  26. Boyles Law
    Pressure of gas in closed container is inversely proportional to the volume of the container
  27. What is the most important muscle of inhalation
    Diaphragm
  28. What cavities does the diaphragm separate
    Thoracic and abdominal
  29. What do the external intercostals do during inhalation
    Raise ribcage up and outwards
  30. Which nerve controls the diaphragm
    Phrenic
  31. Name the sequence of events during inhalation
    Diaphragm flattens, chest cavity expands, lung pressure decreases, external intercostals expands chest cavity, air is inhaled
  32. How many mL air do we take in when we inhale
    500mL
  33. What covers the lungs
    Double membrane called pleura
  34. What are the two layers of the pleura
    Parietal (outer, lines thoracic cavity) and visceral (surrounds lungs)
  35. What keeps the lungs inflated/keeps lungs from collapsing
    Fluid from pleura that is kept in less pressure than lungs
  36. What is lung collapse called
    Pneumothorax
  37. What occurs during exhalation
    Elastic recoil and surface tension cause lung to contract, increasing pressure and pushing air out
  38. Is exhalation an active or passive process
    Active, muscles have to contract
  39. What is alveolar pressure
    Pressure inside the lungs
  40. What is the change in alveolar pressure during inhalation
    760-->758 mm Hg
  41. What is elastic recoil
    The natural ability of lungs and chest to spring back after stretching
  42. What are the 2 inwardly directed forces that contribute to elastic recoil
    Recoil of elastic fibers that were stretched during inhalation & inward pull of surface tension due to film of alveolar fluid
  43. What are 3 other factors that affect the rate of airflow and the ease of pulmonary ventilation
    Surface tension, compliance, airway resistance
  44. What causes surface tension
    The moisture on alveoli; the attraction between polar water molecules
  45. Surface tension causes alveoli to assume the ___ diameter possible
    Smallest
  46. Surface tension needs to be overcome in order to ____ during each inhalation
    Expand lungs
  47. What reduces surfact tension
    Surfactant
  48. What is surfactant composed of
    A mixture of phospholipids and lipoproteins
  49. What is respiratory distress syndrome
    Occurs in premature babies that do not have enough surfactant in lungs
  50. What is compliance
    How much effort is required to stretch lungs and chest wall
  51. When compliance is high, it is ____ expanding
    Easily
  52. What are two factors that determine compliance
    Surfactant and elastic fibers
  53. What are 4 complications that result from low compliance
    Tuberculosis, pulmonary edema, emphysema, surfactant-deficiency
  54. What causes airway resistance
    Walls of airways; smooth muscles controlled by the sympathetic system (causes bronchodialation)
  55. What regulates airway diameter
    Degree of contraction or relaxation of smooth muscle
  56. Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide depends on�
    Partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide
  57. What is dalton�s law
    Each gas in a mixture exerts its own pressure (partial pressure)
  58. Greater differences in partial pressure results in ____ rates of diffusion
    Faster
  59. What is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere
    Nitrogen (79%)
  60. What are 3 factors that cause air partial pressures to change (lower partial pres of O2, higher part pres of CO2)
    Gas exchange, humidification of air, mixing of alveolar air
  61. Is carbon dioxide or oxygen more soluble?
    CO2 (24x more)
  62. What is the mixing of alveolar air
    Some alveoli don�t exchange gas during inhalation (some retain gas); newly inspired gas mixes with retained gas
  63. What is henrys law
    The quantity of gas that will dissolve in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas and its solubility
  64. The higher the partial pressure, the ___ gas will stay in solution
    More
  65. External respiration converts ___ blood into ____ blood.
    Deoxygenated, oxygenated
  66. What is the atmosphere partial pressures of oxygen and CO2
    O2: 159, CO2: 0.3mmHg
  67. What are the partial pressure of the oxygen and CO2 in alveoli
    O2: 105, CO2: 40mmHg
  68. What 6 factors does rate of diffusion depend on
    1) diff in partial pressure. 2) solubility. 3) surface area. 4) diffusion distance. 5) molecular weight. 6) temperature.
  69. What happens in emphysema
    Walls of alveoli are destroyed (produces large air space that have trapped air)�. Surface area decreases� oxygen diffusion decreases
  70. What happens in pulmonary edema
    There is an abnormal accumulation of liquid in interstitial spaces and lungs� diffusion distance increases�. Diffusion decreases
  71. While scuba diving, the high pressure under water causes ___ oxygen to dissolve in blood
    More
  72. Why is it harmful for more oxygen to dissolve in blood during scuba diving
    Increase in superoxides and free oxide radicals that damage epithelia and smooth muscle
  73. While scuba diving, high pressure under water causes ____ N2 to dissolve
    More
  74. What are symptoms of high altitude sickness
    Headache, fatigue, dizziness
  75. What happens during high altitude sickness
    Available oxygen and differences in partial pressure both decrease� rate of diffusion decreases
  76. How is oxygen transported (2 ways)
    Some dissolved, most bound to hb
  77. How many ml oxygen per 100ml blood
    20ml
  78. what is oxyhemoglobin
    oxygen bound to hemoglobin; Hb-O2
  79. How many oxygen atoms can heme bind
    4
  80. A high partial pressure of oxygen means�
    High % saturated hb
  81. Why is the % saturation graph not linear
    The binding of one oxygen to hb increases the affinity for the binding of 2 more; the binding of all 3 increases the affinity for the 4th oxygen atom
  82. The amount of oxygen that remains bound depends on ____
    Partial pressure of oxygen
  83. The lower the partial pressure of oxygen, the ___ oxygen is given off
    More
  84. What is affinity
    The tightness with which hb binds oxygen
  85. What lowers blood pH?
    When a cell is active (exercise), carbon dioxide, lactic acid, H+, and heat are produced
  86. What happens when blood pH decreases
    More H+.. hb binds to oxygen with less energy�oxygen is more easily released
  87. What happens when blood pH increases
    Less H+�hb doesn�t give off oxygen easily
  88. More carbon dioxide causes pH to ___
    Decrease
  89. What is the Bohr effect
    More H+� dec pH� hb binds oxygen with less affinity� H+ can bind with hb�. Causes conformational change... releases oxygen more easiliy� curve shifts right
  90. Hb-O2 + H �
    Hb_H + O2
  91. Increasing temp ____ oxygen release
    Increases
  92. How is heat produced
    It�s a byproduct of metabolic reactions
  93. Decreasing temp ____ affinity
    Increases
  94. What is BPG
    2,3-biphenosphoglycerate (found in RBCs)
  95. What does BPG do
    It helps oxygen break away from hb
  96. ____ produces BPG
    Glycolysis
  97. BPG binds to ____ of globin chain, changing the shape and allowing oxygen to come off easily
    Amino terminal
  98. What causes carbon monoxide poisoning
    Elevated blood levels of CO, not enough oxygen
  99. Binding of CO is ___ than that of oxygen
    200x stronger
  100. CO binds to ____ on hgb as oxygen
    The same site
  101. What is needed to treat CO poisoning
    High pressurized oxygen
  102. RBCs deliver ___ and ___
    NO and oxygen
  103. On a globin chain, ____ binds NO, keeping it away from FE
    cysteine group
  104. NO is a vaso___
    Dialator
  105. How many ml CO2 per 100ml blood
    52mL
  106. CO2 binds to ___ terminal
    Amino
  107. What are the 3 ways carbon dioxide is transported
    Dissolved (7%), carbamino compounds (23%), bicarbonate ion (70%)
  108. What is the reverse chloride shift
    Cl- moving out of RBC into plasma to balance the effect of HCO3- moving into the RBC
  109. The reverse chloride shift occurs in the ____ capillaries (____ respiration)
    Pulmonary, external
  110. During reverse chloride shift, ____ is moving out of capillaries while ___ is moving in from lungs
    Carbon dioxide, oxygen
  111. What is the chloride shift
    Cl- moving into RBC from plasma to balance the effect of HCO3- leaving the RBC
  112. During the chloride shift, ___ is moving out of capillaries while ___ is moving in from lungs
    Oxygen, carbon dioxide
  113. H+ binds to Hb-O2, causing a ________ that releases oxygen
    Shape change
  114. ____ RBC has more Cl- than ____ RBC
    Venous, arterial
  115. (Haldane) _____ hemoglobin binds carbon dioxide better and transports more
    Deoxygenated
  116. ____ buffers H+
    Hemoglobin
  117. What is the Haldane effect
    The amount of carbon dioxide that can be carried in the blood is dependent on oxyhemoglobin
  118. Decreasing oxyhemoglobin ____ plasma carbon dioxide carrying capacity
    Increases
  119. The pons and the medullary region are part of the ___ brain
    Primitive
  120. How many ml of O2 do we use per minute (resting)
    200mL
  121. What are the three parts of the respiratory center
    Pneumotaxic area, apneustic area, medullary rhythmicity area
  122. What are the 2 parts of the medullary rhythmicity area
    Respiratory and expiratory
  123. Medullary rhythmicity area controls ___ breathing
    Normal
  124. During normal quiet breathing, the inspiratory area is active for ___ seconds and inactive for ____ seconds
  125. During normal breathing, exhalation is ____
    Passive
  126. During normal breathing, the ____ and the _____ send a signal to activate inspiratory area
    Phrenic nerve and intercostals
  127. During normal breathing, the ___ and ____ contract
    Diaphragm, external intercostals
  128. During normal breathing, the diaphragm and intercostals ____, and the lungs ____
    Relax, recoil
  129. During forceful breathing, the ____ area activates the ____ area
    Inspiratory, expiratory
  130. During forceful breathing, ____ muscles are involved in inhalation
    More
  131. During forceful breathing, inhalation and exhalation are ____ processes
  132. During forceful breathing, the intercostal and abdominal muscles ___
    Contract
  133. Where is the pneumotaxic area located
    Pons
  134. Pneumotaxic area coordinates ___ and ____
    Inspiration and expiration
  135. Pneumotaxic area controls ______
    Duration of inspiratation
  136. What prevents the lungs from being over-inflated
    Pneumotaxic area
  137. How does Pneumotaxic area prevent lungs from being over-inflated
    Sends signals to inspiratory area
  138. Pneumotaxic area overrides the _____ area
    Apneustic
  139. Where is the Apneustic area located
    Pons
  140. The Apneustic area ____ inhalation (for deep breaths)
    Prolongs
  141. Apneustic area sends stimulatory signals to ____ area that activate and prolong inhalation
    Inspiratory
  142. Why can�t kill yourself by holding your breath?
    The buildup of H+ and partial pressure of carbon dioxide stimulates the inspiratory area so you inhale
  143. What are the 2 types of chemoreceptors
    Central and peripheral
  144. Where are the central chemoreceptors
    Cerebrospinal fluid
  145. What do the central chemoreceptors detect
    H+ and partial pressure of CO2
  146. Where are the peripheral chemoreceptors
    Carotid bodies and aortic bodies
  147. What do the peripheral chemoreceptors detect
    H+, partial pressure of CO2, partial pressure of oxygen
  148. Where do the chemoreceptors send signals to
    Respiratory areas
  149. Increasing ____ (or decreasing ____ or ____) leads to hyperventilation
    Arterial blood partial pressure carbon dioxide, pH or partial pressure oxygen
  150. Decreasing arterial blood partial pressure of carbon dioxide would lead to ___
    Hypoventilation
  151. Asthma is the release of ___ and ___
    Histamine, prostaglandins
  152. In ____, there is broncoconstriction (possibly suffocation)
    Asthma
  153. What drugs treat asthma
    Beta-2 agonist
  154. Pneumonia is caused by ___ or ___
    Bacteria, virus
  155. Pneumonia is the ____ of alveoli
    Inflammation
  156. ___ causes tuberculosis
    Mycobacterium
  157. In tb, ____ form around bacteria, resulting in the formation of scar tissue in lungs
    Fibrous nodules
  158. Cystic fibrosis is the ____
    Mutation in Cl- channel
  159. In cystic fibrosis, ____ in respiratory system and pancreas
    Mucus accumulates
  160. �Salty skin� is a characteristic of ___
    cystic fibrosis
  161. ____ is the leading cause of death in males and females
  162. ____ is when the cells of the primary bronchus grow out of control (tumor)
    Small cell carcinoma
  163. Damage of the epithelia of bronchial tubes is the most prevalent form of ____
    Lung cancer
  164. Adenocarcinoma is when ___ and ___ grow out of control
    Bronchial glands, alveolar cells

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