Ch2_Medical_Terminology

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havenwood
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Ch2_Medical_Terminology
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2012-02-04 19:10:49
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JCCC AAC 130 Medical Terminology Ehrlich 6E nDelmar Cengage Learning cytology histology body systems planes
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JCCC AAC 130 Medical Terminology - Erlich 6th Edition, Chapter 2.
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  1. Tissue
    • Group of layer of similarly specialized cell that join together to perform certain specific functions.
    • The 4 main types are:
    • 1. Epithelial
    • 2. Connective
    • 3. Muscle
    • 4. Nerve
  2. List the 4 types of tissue cells.
    • 1. Epithelial
    • 2. Connective
    • 3. Muscle
    • 4. Nerve
  3. What is histology?
    The study of the structure, composition and function of tissues.
  4. hist/o
    combining form of tissue
  5. -ology
    Suffix meaning 'the study of'
  6. Histologist
    Specialist in the study of the organizationn of tissues on all levels
  7. hist
    Word root meaning tissue
  8. -ologist
    Suffix meaning specialist
  9. Epithelial tissues
    • 1. One of 4 major tissue types.
    • 2. They:
    • .....a. form protective covering for all internal & external surfaces of the body
    • .....b. form glands
    • 3. There are 2 types:
    • .....* Epithelium
    • .....* Endothelium

    Note: The other 3 main types of tissues are connective, muscle, and nerve.
  10. Epithelium
    • Specialized tissue that forms:
    • 1. Epidermis (outer layer) of the skin*
    • 2. Surface layer of the mucous membranes

    Note: One of 2 types of epithelial tissue. Epithelial tissues is one of the 4 main types of tissue, also including connective, muscle, and nerve tissue.
  11. Endothelium
    • 1. One of 2 specialized types of epithelial tissues.
    • 2. Specialized epithelial tissue that lines the:
    • .....a. blood and lymph vessels
    • .....b. body cavities
    • .....c. glands
    • .....d. organs

    Note: One of 2 types of epithelial tissues. Epithelial tissue is one of the 4 main types of tissue, also including connective, muscle, and nerve tissue.
  12. Connective tissue
    • 1. One of 4 major types of tissues.
    • 2. Support and connect organs and other body tissues.
    • 3. There are 4 types of connective tissues:
    • .....a. dense connective tissue
    • .....b. adipose tissue
    • .....c. loose connective tissue
    • .....d. liquid connective tissues

    Note: The other 3 main types of tissue are connective, muscle, and nerve.
  13. Dense connective tissue
    • 1. One of 4 types of connective tissue.
    • 2. Form joints and framework of the body
    • 3. Examples are:
    • ..... * bone
    • ..... * cartilage

    Note: The other 3 types of connective tissue are adipose, loose, and liquid.
  14. Adipose tissue
    • 1. One of 4 types of connective tissue.
    • 2. Also known as fat
    • 3. Provides:
    • .....* padding
    • .....* insulation
    • .....* support

    Note: The other 3 types of connective tissue are dense, loose, and liquid.
  15. adip/o
    Combining form meaning fat
  16. adip
    Word root meaning fat
  17. -ose
    Suffix meaning 'pertaining to'
  18. Loose connective tissue
    • 1. One of 4 types of connective tissue.
    • 2. Surrounds various organs
    • 3. Supports both nerve cells and blood vessels

    Note: The other 3 types of connective tissue are dense, adipose, and liquid.
  19. Liquid connective tissues
    • 1. One of 4 types of connective tissues.
    • 2. Blood and lymph
    • 3. Transport nutrients and waste products throughout the body

    Note: The other 3 types of connective tissues are dense, adipose, and loose.
  20. Muscle tissue
    • 1. One of 4 main types of tissues.
    • 2. Contains cells with the specialized ability to contract and relax.

    Note: The other 3 main types of tissues are: epithelial, connective and nerve.
  21. Nerve tissue
    • 1. One of 4 types of tissues.
    • 2. Contains cells with the specialized abiliity to react to stimuli and to conduct electrical impulses.

    Note: The other 3 main types of tissues are epithelial, connective and muscle.
  22. Pathology of tissue formation
    • 1. There are two general types of disorders of tissues:
    • .....a. Incomplete tisue formation
    • .....b. Abnormal tissue formation
    • 2. Are frequently due to unknown causes.
    • 3. Can occur before birth as the tissues are forming or appear later in life.
  23. Incomplete tissue formation
    • 1. One of 2 general types of pathology of tissue formation.
    • 2. There are 2 general types of incomplete tissues formation:
    • .....a. Aplasia - defective development or congenital absence of an organ or tissue
    • .....b. Hypoplasia - incomplete development of an organ or tissue which is usually due to a deficiency in the number of cells.
  24. Aplasia
    • 1. One of 2 types of incomplete tissue formation.
    • 2. Defective development or the congenital absence of an organ or tissue.
  25. a-
    Prefix meaning 'without.'

    • Note: WATCH for 'ana-' which means 'excessive' - especially in defining and describing:
    • ..... * ANAPLASIA - Change in structure of cells or orientation to each other; abnormal cell development characteristic of tumor formation in cancers.
    • ..... * APLASIA - defective development or congenital absence of an organ or tissue.
  26. -plasia
    Suffix meaning 'formation.'
  27. Hypoplasia
    • 1. One of 2 types of incompete tissue formation.
    • 2. Incomplete development of an organ or tissue usually due to a deficiency in the number of cells.
  28. hypo-
    Prefix meanig 'deficient.'
  29. ana-
    Prefix meaning 'excessive.'

    • Notes:
    • 1. See also 'hyper-' word root which has the same meaning but is combined in hyperplasia to mean excessive NUMBER of cells and in hypertrophy to mean excessive SIZE of cells

    • . 2. WATCH for 'a-' which means 'without' - especially in defining and describing:
    • ..... * APLASIA - defective development or congenital absence of an organ or tissue.
    • ..... * ANAPLASIA - Change in structure of cells or orientation to each other; abnormal cell development characteristic of tumor formation in cancers.
  30. dys-
    Prefix meanig 'bad' (or 'difficult' or 'painful.')
  31. hyper-
    • Prefix meaning ' excessive.'
    • Note: See also ana-
  32. Abnormal tissue formation.
    • 1. One of 2 general types of pathology of tissue formation.
    • 2. There are 4 types:
    • .....a. Anaplasia
    • .....b. Dysplasia
    • .....c. Hyperplasia
    • .....d. Hypertrophy
  33. Anaplasia
    • 1. Change in the structure of cells and in their orientation to each other.
    • 2. The abnormal cell development is characteristic of tumor formation in cancers.
    • 3. Contrast with hypertrophy.
  34. Dysplasia
    • Abnormal development or growth of:
    • ......* cells
    • ......* tissues or
    • ......* organs
  35. Hyperplasia
    Enlargement of an organ or tissue because of an abnormal increase in the NUMBER of cells in the tissues.

    Note: Contrast with anaplasia & hypertrophy. (-trophy means development)
  36. Hypertrophy
    • General increase in the bulk of a body part or organ that is due to an increase in the SIZE - but NOT NUMBER - of cells in the tissues.
    • NOTES: A. This enlargement is NOT due to tumor formation.
    • ................B. Contrast with anaplasia and hyperplasia.
  37. Gland
    • 1. A group of specialized epithelial cells that a capable of producing secretions.
    • 2. There are 2 major types:
    • .....a. Exocrine - have ducts connecting to organs or outside (example: sweat glands)
    • .....b. Endocrine - ductless. Produce hormones & secrete directly into bloodstream.
  38. endo- or en-
    Prefixes meaning 'within.'
  39. exo-
    Prefix meaning 'out of.'
  40. -crine
    Suffix meaning 'to secrete.'
  41. Adenitis
    Inflammation of a gland.
  42. Aden/o
    Word root combining form meaning 'gland.'

    Know word root!!
  43. Adenocarcinoma
    • MALIGNANT tumor that originates in glandular tissue.
    • Note: Malignant means potentially life threatening and harmful or capable of spreading .
  44. Carcin
    Word root meaning 'cancerous.'
  45. -oma
    Suffix meaning 'tumor.'
  46. Adenoma
    • BENIGN tumor that arises in or resembles glandular tissue.
    • Note: Benign means non-life threatening.
  47. Adenomalacia
    • Abnormal softening of a gland.
    • Note: Adenomalacia is the opposite of adenosclerosis.
  48. -malacia
    Suffix meaning 'abnormal softening.'
  49. Adenosis
    any disease condition of a gland.
  50. -osis
    Suffix meaning 'abnormal condition or disease.'
  51. Adenosclerosis
    • Abnormal hardening of a gland.
    • Note: Adenosclerosis is the opposite of adenomalacia.
  52. -sclerosis
    Suffix meaning 'hardening.'
  53. Adenectomy
    Surgical removal of a gland.
  54. -ectomy
    Suffix meaning 'surgical removal.'
  55. Organ or body organ.
    • A somewhat independent part of the body that performs a specific function.
    • Note: For purposes of description related tissues and organs are organized into body systems with specialized functions.
  56. Body Systems
    • The human body is divided into 13 body systems by structure and function. The 3 body systems are:
    • ..... 1. Skeletal
    • ..... 2. Muscular
    • ..... 3. Cardiovascular
    • ..... 4. Lymphatic
    • ..... 5. Immune
    • ..... 6. Respiratory
    • ..... 7. Digestive
    • ..... 8. Urinary
    • ..... 9. Nervous
    • .....10. Special Senses
    • .....11. Integumentary
    • .....12. Endocrine
    • .....13. Reproductive
  57. Skeletal System
    • Major Structures:
    • .....* bones
    • .....* joints
    • .....* cartilage

    • Major Functions:
    • ..... 1. Supports and shapes the body.
    • ..... 2. Protects internal organs.
    • ..... 3. Forms some blood cells.
    • ..... 4. Stores minerals.
  58. Muscular System
    • Major Structures:
    • .....* Muscles
    • .....* Tendons
    • .....* Fascia

    • Major Functions:
    • ..... 1. Holds the body erect.
    • ..... 2. Makes movement possible.
    • ..... 3. Moves body fluids.
    • ..... 4. Generates body heat.
  59. Cardiovascular System
    • Major Structures:
    • .....* Heart
    • .....* Arteries
    • .....* Veins
    • .....* Capillaries
    • .....* Blood

    • Major Functions:
    • ..... 1. Blood circulation throughout body transports the following to cells:
    • ............a. oxygen
    • ............b. nutrients
    • ..... 2. Blood circulation carries waste products to the kidneys where waste is removed by filtration.
  60. Lymphatic System
    • Major Structures:
    • .....* Lymph
    • .....* Lymphatic vessels
    • .....* Lymph nodes

    • Major Functions:
    • ..... 1. Removes & transports waste products from fluid between the cells.
    • ..... 2. Lymph nodes: Destroy harmful substances such as pathogens and cancer cells
    • ..... 3. Returns filtered lymph to the bloodstream where it becomes plasma again.
  61. Immune System
    • Major Structures:
    • .....* Tonsils
    • .....* Spleen
    • .....* Thymus
    • .....* Skin
    • .....* Specialized blood cells

    • Major Function:
    • ..... Defends the body against invading pathogens and allergens.
  62. Respiratory System
    • Major Structures:
    • .....* Nose
    • .....* Pharynx
    • .....* Trachea
    • .....* Larynx
    • .....* Lungs

    • Major Functions:
    • ..... 1. Brings oxygen into the body for transportation to the cells.
    • ..... 2. Removes carbon dioxide and some water waste fro the body.
  63. Digestive Systen
    • Major Structures:
    • .....* Mouth
    • .....* Esophagus
    • .....* Stomach
    • .....* Small Intestines
    • .....* Large Intestines
    • .....* Liver
    • .....* Pancreas

    • Major Functions:
    • ..... 1. Digests ingested food so it can be absorbed into the bloodstream.
    • ..... 2. Eliminates solid waste.
  64. Urinary System
    • Major Sructures:
    • .....* Kidneys
    • .....* Ureters
    • .....*Urinary bladder
    • .....*Urethra

    • Major Functions:
    • ..... 1. Filters blood to remove waste.
    • ..... 2. Maintains electrolyte and fluid balance within th body.
  65. Nervous System
    • Major Structures:
    • .....* Nerves
    • .....* Brain
    • .....* Spinal cord

    • Major Functions:
    • ..... 1. Coordinates the reception of stimuli.
    • ..... 2. Transmits messages throughout the body.
  66. Special Senses
    • Major Structures:
    • .....* Eyes
    • .....* Ears

    • Major Functions:
    • .....Receive visual and auditory information and transmit it to the brain.
  67. Integumentary System
    • Major Structures:
    • .....* Skin
    • .....* Sebaceous glands
    • .....* Sweaet glands

    • Major Functions:
    • ..... 1. Protects the body against invasion by bacteria.
    • ..... 2. Aids in regulating the body temperature and water content.
  68. Endocrine System
    • Major Structures:
    • .....* Adrenal glands
    • .....* Gonads
    • .....* Pancreas
    • .....* Parathyroids
    • .....* Pineal
    • .....* Pituitary
    • .....* Thymus
    • .....* Thyroid

    • Major Functions:
    • ..... Integrates ALL body functions.
  69. Reproductive System
    • Major Structures:
    • .....* Male:
    • ............* Penis
    • ............* Testicles
    • .....* Female:
    • ............* Ovaries
    • ............* Uterus
    • ............* Vagina

    • Major Fuction:
    • ..... Produces new life.
  70. Pathology
    Definition 1. Study of the nature and cause of disease that involves changes in structure and function.

    Definition 2. A condition produced by disease.
  71. 1. path/o
    2. - pathy
    1. Word root combining form meaning 'disease.'

    2. Suffix meaing 'disease.'

    • Both forms also mean:
    • .....* Suffering
    • .....* Feeling
    • .....* Emotion
  72. Pathologist
    1. Specialist in laboratory analysis of tissue samples to confirm or establish a diagnosis.

    • 2. These tissue samples may be removed in:
    • .....* Biopsies
    • .....* Operations
    • .....* Post-mortem examinations (autopsy)
  73. Etiology
    The study of the causes of diseases.
  74. eti
    Word root meaning 'cause.'
  75. Communicable Disease
    1. Any condition that is transmitted from one person to another either by direct or indirect contact with contaminated objects.

    • 2. Methods of transmission include:
    • .....* Indirect contact
    • .....* Bloodborne
    • .....* Airborne
    • .....* Food-borne and waterborne
    • .....* Vector-borne

    3. Note: Also known as contagious disease.
  76. Indirect contact transmission
    Refers to situations in which a susceptible person is infected by contact with a contaminated surface.
  77. Bloodborne transmission
    Spread of a disease through contact with blood or other bodily fluids that are contaminated with blood.

    • Examples of bloodborne transmision are:
    • .....* HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)
    • .....* Hepatitis B
    • .....* Most sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)
  78. Airborne transmission
    Occurs through contact with contaminated respiratory droplets spread by cough or sneeze

    • Examples include:
    • .....* Tuberculosis
    • .....* Flu (influenza)
    • ..,..* Colds
    • .....* Measles
  79. Food-borne and Waterborne transmission
    Caused by eating or drinking contaminated food or water that has not been properly treated to remove contamination or kill pathogens that are present.

    Also known as fecal-oral contamination.
  80. Vector-borne transmission
    Spread of certain disease due to the bite of a vector.

    • Note: As used here the term vector describes insects or animals that are capable of transmitting a disease including:
    • .....* mosquitos (the most common vector -
    • ...........they transmit diseases such as malaria and
    • ...........West Nile Virus.)
    • .....* flies
    • .....* mites
    • .....* ticks
    • .....* rats
    • .....* dogs
  81. Epidemiologist
    Specialist in the study of outbreaks of diseases within a population group.
  82. epi-
    Prefix meaning 'above.'
  83. dem
    Word root meaning 'population.'
  84. Endemic
    1. Refers to ongoing presence of a disease within a population group or area.

    2. Example: The common cold is endemic because it is alays present within the general population.
  85. en- or endo-
    Prefixes meaning 'within.'
  86. Epidemic
    1. A sudden and widepread outbreak of a diseae within a specific population group or area.

    2. Examples: Measles or influenza.
  87. -ic
    Suffix meaning 'pertaing to.'
  88. Pandemic
    1. Refers to an outbreak of a disease occuring over a large geographic area or even worldwide.

    2. Example: Worldwide spread of AIDS.
  89. Name the 6 general types of diseases.
    • 1. Functional disorder
    • 2. Iatrogenic illness
    • 3. Idiopathic disorder
    • 4. Infectious disease
    • 5. Nosocomial infection
    • 6. Organic disorder
  90. Functional disorder
    1. Produce symptoms for which no physiological or anatomical cause can be identified.

    2. Example: panic attack.
  91. Iatrogenic illness
    1. An unfavorable response due to prescribed medical treatment.

    2. Example: Severe burns resulting from radiation therapy.
  92. Idiopathic disorder
    An illness without a known cause.
  93. idi/o
    combining form meaning 'peculiar to the individual.'
  94. Infectious disease
    An illness caused by living pathogenic organisms such as bacteria.
  95. Nosocomial infection
    1. A disease acquired in a hospital or clinical setting.

    2. Nosocomial means 'hospital-acquired.'

    3. Example: MRSA or staph infections are often spread in hospitals.
  96. Organic disorder
    1. Produces symptoms caused by detectable physical changes in the body.
  97. 2. Example: Chickenpox has a characteristic rash and is an organic disorder caused by a virus.
  98. Anatomy
    The study of the structures of the body.
  99. Epidemiology
    The study of outbreak of diseases within a population.
  100. Physiology
    The study of the functions of the structures of the body.
  101. physi
    word root meaning 'nature' or 'physical.'
  102. Anatomic position
    • Describes the body assuming the inividual is standing in the standard position that includes:
    • ..... * standing straight so that the body is erect and facing forward
    • .....* Holding the arms at the sides and hands turned with the palms turned toward the front.
  103. Body planes
    1. Imaginary vertical and horizontal lines used to divide the body into sections for descriptive purposes.

    These planes are aligned to a body standing in the anatomic position.
  104. Vertical planes
    The vertical plane is the up-and-down plane that is at a right angle to the horizon.

    • They include:
    • .....* Midsagittal plane (Midline)
    • ..........* Divides into EQUAL left & right parts

    • .....* Sagittal plane
    • ..........* Divides into UNEQUAL left & right parts

    • .....* Frontal plane (coronal plane)
    • ..........* Divides into Anterior (front) & Posterior (back) parts.
    • ..........* The frontal plane is at a right angle to sagittal plane.
  105. Horizontal Plane
    • 1. The horizontal plane - transverse plane - is a flat crosswise plane parallel to the horizon.
    • 2. It divides the body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) portions.
    • 3. The division can be at any level across the body.
  106. Body Direction
    • The realative location of sections of an organ or the body can be described through the use of pairs of contrasting body direction terms.
    • .....*Midsagittal Plane
    • ..........* Midline (equal halves - neither left nor right of center)
    • .....* Sagittal Plane
    • ..........* Left & Right of midline (based on patient POV)
    • ..........* Proximal & Distal - closer to or further from the:
    • ...............* midline OR
    • ...............* beginning of the body structure
    • ..........* Medial & Lateral - nearer or toward the midline versus nearer the side and way from the midline
    • .....* Transverse Plane
    • ..........* Superior & Inferior - uppermost or lowermost
    • ..........* Cephalic & Caudal - toward the head or feet
    • ....* Frontal Plane
    • ..........* Anterior & Posterior - situated in front or back
    • ..........* Ventral & Dorsal - front/belly side or back of organ or body.
  107. Ventral
    Refers to the front - or belly - side of the organ or body
  108. ventr
    Word root meaning 'belly side of the body.'
  109. -al
    Suffix meaning 'pertaining to.'
  110. Dorsal
    Refers to the back of the organ or body.

    Note: Opposite of dorsal.
  111. Dors
    Word root meaning 'back of the body.'

    Note: Opposite of ventral.
  112. Anterior
    • 1. Situated in the front.
    • 2. It also means on the front or forward part of an organ.
    • 3. Anterior is also used in reference to the ventral surface of the body.

    Note: Opposite of posterior.
  113. anter
    Word root meaning 'front or before.'
  114. Posterior
    • 1. Situated in the front.
    • 2. It also means on the front or forward part of an organ.
    • 3. Anterior is also used in reference to the ventral surface of the body.

    Note: Opposite of posterior.
  115. poster
    Word root meaning 'back or toward the back.'
  116. -ior
    Suffix meaning 'pertaining to.'
  117. Superior
    • Means:
    • .....* Uppermost
    • .....* Above
    • .....* Toward the head

    Note: Opposite of inferior.
  118. Inferior
    • Means:
    • .....* Lowermost
    • .....* Below
    • .....* Toward the feet

    Note: Opposite of superior.
  119. Cephalic
    Means 'toward the head.'
  120. cephal
    Word root meaning 'head.'

    Note: Opposite of caudal.
  121. Caudal
    Means 'toward the lower part of the body.'
  122. Caud
    Word root meaning 'tail or lower part of the body.'

    Note: Opposite of cephalic.
  123. Proximal
    • Situated:
    • .....* nearest the midline
    • .....* nearest the beginning of a body structure
    • TIP: Most approximate/close.

    Example: The proximal end of the humerus (large long bone of the upper arm) is closest to and forms part of the shoulder.

    Note: Opposite of distal.
  124. Distal
    • Situated:
    • .....* farthest from the midline
    • .....* farthest from the beginning of a body structure.
    • TIP: Most distant.

    Example: The distal end of the humerus forms part of the elbow.

    Note: Opposite of proximal.
  125. Medial
    • Means the direction toward or nearer the midline.
    • TIP: toward the 'middle.'

    Example: The medial ligament of the knee is near the INNER surface of the leg.
  126. Lateral
    • Means the direction nearer the side and farther from the midline.
    • TIP: Like a lateral pass - sideways. Or bilateral means 2 sides.

    Example: The lateral ligament of the knee is nearer the outside of the leg.

    Note: Opposite of medial.
  127. Body Cavities
    Spaces within the body that contain and protect internal organs.

    • There are 2 main body cavities:
    • ..... 1. Dorsal
    • ..... 2. Ventral
  128. Dorsal Cavity
    • 1. 1 of two major body cavities.
    • 2. Located along the back of the body and head.
    • 3. Contains the organs of the nervous system that coordinate body functions.
    • 4. Divided into 2 parts:
    • .....* Cranial cavity
    • ..........* Located within the skull
    • ..........* Surrounds and protects the brain.
    • .....* Spinal cavity:
    • ..........* Located within the spinal column
    • ..........* Surrounds and protects the spinal cord
  129. Ventral Cavity
    • 1. 1 of two main body cavities.
    • 2. Located along the front of the body.
    • 3. Is made up of several smaller cavities:
    • .....* Thoracic cavity
    • .....* Abdominopelvic cavity - joint term used to describe these cavities together because they have no physical division:
    • ..........* Abdominal cavity
    • ..........* Pelvic cavity
    • ..........* The Inguinal area refers to the entire lower area of the abdomen.
    • This includes the groin which is the crease at the junction of the trunk with the upper end of the thigh.
    • 4. Contains the body organs that maintain homeostatis.
  130. Inguinal
    Means 'groin' and refers to the entire lower area of the abdomen.

    This includes the groin which is the crease at the junction of the trunk with the upper end of the thigh.
  131. Homeostatis
    Process through which the body maintains a constant environment.
  132. home/o
    Combining form meaning 'constant.'
  133. -stasis
    Suffix meaning 'control.'
  134. Thoracic cavity
    • 1. Most superior part of the ventral cavity.
    • 2. Also known as the 'chest cavity' or 'thorax.'
    • 3. Surrounds and protects the heart and lungs.
    • 4. Separated from the abdominal cavity by the diaphragm muscle.
  135. Abdominal cavity
    • 1. Part of the ventral cavity, immediately below the thoracic cavity.
    • 2. Separated from the thoracic cavity by the diaphragm muscle.
    • 3. Contains the major organs of digestion.
    • 4. Also known as abdomen.
  136. Abdomen
    • 1. Also known as the abdominal cavity.
    • 2. Contains major organs of digestion.
  137. Pelvic Cavity
    • 1. Immediately below the abdominal cavity.
    • 2. Space formed by the hip bones.
    • 3. Contains primarily the organs of the reproductive and excretory systems.
  138. Regions of the Thorax and Abdomen
    • 1. Descriptive system that divides the abdomen and lower portion of the thorax into 9 parts:
    • .....* Hypochondriac regions - left & right
    • .....* Epigastric region
    • .....* Lumbar regions - left & right
    • .....* Umbilical region
    • .....* Iliac regions - left & right
    • .....* Hypogastric region
  139. Hypochondriac Regions
    • 1. Located on the left & right sides of the body
    • 2. Covered by the lower ribs.
    • 3. 2 (left & right) of 9 descriptive regions of the thorax and abdomen.

    Note: This term also describes an individual with an abnormal concern about his or her health.
  140. hypo-
    Prefix meaning 'below.'
  141. chondr/i
    Combining form meaning 'cartilage.'
  142. Epigastric Region
    • 1. Located above the stomach.
    • 2. 1 of 9 descriptive regions of the thorax and abdomen.
  143. gastr
    Root word meaning 'stomach.'
  144. -ic
    Suffix meaning 'pertaining to.'
  145. Lumbar regions
    • 1. Located on the left & right sides near the inward curve of the spine.
    • 2. The term 'lumbar' describes the part of the back between the ribs and the pelvis.
    • 3. 2 (left & right) of 9 descriptive regions of the thorax & abdomen.
  146. Lumb
    Means 'lower back.'
  147. -ar
    Suffix meaning 'pertaining to.'
  148. Umbilical region
    Surrounds the umbilicus which is commonly known as the belly button or navel.

    The umbilicus is the pit in the center of the abdominal wall and marks the point where the umbilical cord was attached before birth.
  149. Iliac regions
    • 1.Located on the left and right sides over the hip bones.
    • 2. The iliac region is named for the wide portion of the hip bone.
    • 3. 2 of the 9 descriptive regions that divide the abdomen and lower thorax.
  150. Hypogastric region
    Located below the stomach
  151. hypo-
    Prefix meaning 'below.'
  152. Quadrants of the Abdomen
    • 1. Descriptive system that divides the abdomen into 4 quadrants to make it easier to describe the location of an abdominal organ or pain.
    • 2. The 4 quadrants are:
    • .....* Right upper quadrant - RUQ
    • .....* Left uppr quadrant - LUQ
    • .....* Right lower qudrant - RLQ
    • .....* Left lower quadrant - LLQ
  153. Umbilicus
    • The pit in the center of the abdominal wall.
    • Marks the point where the umbilical cord was attached before birth.
  154. The Peritoneum
    • 1. Multilayered membrane.
    • 2. Supports and holds organs in place within the abdominal cavity.
    • 3. There are 3 types:
    • .....* Parietal peritoneum
    • .....* Visceral peritoneum
    • .....* Mesentery

    Note: A membrane is a thin layer of tissue that covers a surface or lines a cavity or divides a space or organ.
  155. Membrane
    • A thin layer of tissue that:
    • .....* covers a surface
    • .....* lines a cavity
    • .....* divide a space
    • .....* divides an organ
  156. Parietal peritoneum
    • 1. Outer layer of the peritoneum.
    • 2. Lines the interior of the abdominal wall.

    Note: Parietal means 'cavity wall.'
  157. Parietal
    Means 'of, or pertaining, to the walls of a cavity.'
  158. Visceral peritoneum
    • 1. Inner layer of the peritoneum.
    • 2. Surrounds organs of the abdominal cavity.

    Note: Visceral means 'relating to the internal organs.'
  159. Mesentery
    1. Fused double layer of the parietal peritoneum.
  160. 2. Attaches parts of the intestine to the interior abdominal wall.
  161. Retroperitoneal
    Means 'located behind the peritoneum.'

    Example: Directional indicator. The location of the kidneys is retroperitoneal with one on each side of the spinal column.
  162. retro-
    Prefix meaning 'behind.'
  163. periton
    Root word meaning 'peritoneum.'
  164. -eal
    Suffix meaning 'pertaining to.'
  165. Peritonitis
    Inflammation of the peritoneum.
  166. -itis
    Suffix meaning 'inflammation.'
  167. cytology
    The study of the structure and function of a cell.
  168. cyto/o
    Combining form meaning 'cell.'
  169. Cell
    1. The smallest structural & functional unit of the body.

    2. Specialized cells group together to form tissues & organs.
  170. List the 3 main parts of a cell.
    • 1. Cell Membrane
    • .....* Tissue that surrounds and protects the contents of a cell by separating them from the external environment.
  171. 2. Cytoplasm
    .....* Material within the cell membrane that is NOT a part of the nucleus.
  172. 3. Nucleus
    • .....* Surrounded by the cell membrane and cytoplasm.
    • .....* The control center of the cell.
    • .....* Structure within the cell that has 2 important functions:
    • ..........* a. Controls activities of the cell
    • ..........* b. Helps the cell divide. (reproduce?)
  173. Adult stem cells
    Also called somatic cells.

    What: Undifferentiated cell from among differentiated cells in tissue or organ.

    Purpose: To maintain & repair tissue in which they are found.

    Benefit: Have many potential therapeutic uses for transplants.
  174. Embryonic stem cells
    What: UNdifferentiated AND UNlike any specific adult cell.

    • Sources: There are 2 sources:
    • ..... 1. Cord blood and placenta of newborn harvested at time of birth and kept frozen until needed.
    • ......2. Surplus embryos produced during in vitro (test tube) fertilization attempts can be used with permission of the 'parents.'

    • Benefits:
    • ..... 1. Have ability to form ANY adult cell.
    • ..... 2. Proliferate - grow - rapidly in lab so can potentially provide source for adult cells for:
    • ..........* muscle cells
    • ..........* liver cells
    • ..........* bone cells
    • ..........* blood cells
    • ..... 3. More primitive than adult stem cells so embryonic stem cell transplants don't require as perfect a match between patient and donor.
  175. -plasm
    Suffix meaning 'formative material of cells.'
  176. Stem cells
    • 1. Differ from other cells in 2 ways:
    • .....a. Unspecialized cell that are able to renew themselves for long periods by cellular division.

    • .....b. Under certain conditions they can be transformed into cells with special functions.
    • .....Examples:
    • ..........* Heart muscle=heartbeat
    • ..........* Pancreas=insulin production
    • 2. There are 2 types of stem cells:
    • .....a. Adult stem cells (somatic cells)
    • .....b. Embryonic stem cells
  177. Undifferentiated stem cells
    Have no specialized structure or function, unlike differentiated cells.
  178. Differentiated cells
    • 1. Have specialized structure or function, unlike undifferentiaed cells.
    • 2. Hemopoetic - blood-forming - tissues or cells for transplant are harvested from this.
    • 3. Risk GVHD - Graft Versus Host Disesase - if the tissue match between donor and recipient is not close enough.
  179. Chromosome
    • 1. Part of the nucleus of a cell.
    • 2. Includes protein plus strands of genetic material called DNA - dioxyribonucleic acid) molecules.
    • 3. DNA contains the body's genes.
    • 4. Each chromosome contains about 100,000 genes.
    • 5. By packaging genetic material into chromosomes the genetic material is kept neat and organized and compact.
  180. DNA
    • 1. Dioxyribonucleic acid.
    • 2. Stored in the chromosome of the cell nucleus.
    • 3. The primary genetic material of all cellular organisms.
    • 4. Packages genetic material in double helix so is kept neat and organized and compact.
  181. Gene
    • 1. Fundamental physical & functional unit of heredity:
    • .....* Controls all physical traits.
    • .....* Controls hereditary disorders.
    • 2. Contained chromosome of the cell nucleus in DNA strands in double helix formation to allow neat and organized and compact storage of information.
    • 3. Each chromosome contains about 100,000 genes.
  182. Genetics
    • Study of:
    • .....1. How genes are transferred from parents to their children.
    • .....2. Role genes play in health and disease
  183. gene
    Word root meaning 'producing.'
  184. -tics
    Suffix meaning 'pertaining to.'
  185. Geneticist
    Specialist in the field of genetics.
  186. Dominant gene
    When inherited from EITHER parent the offspring WILL display (inherit) the condition or characteristic.
  187. Examples: Freckles and Huntington's Disease
  188. Recessive gene
    • 1. a. When inherited from BOTH parents the offspring WILL display the condition or chacteristic.
    • ..........Example: Sickle-cell Anemia
    • .....b. When inherited from only ONE parent AND a 'normal' gene is inherited from the other parent the offspring WILL NOT HAVE (display?) the condition or characteristic. BUT the offspring will still carry the trait even when not having or displaying the condition or characteristic and CAN transmit it to THEIR children.
  189. Genome
    • 1. The entire set of genes derived from one parent (individual.)
    • 2. 99% identical among humans.
    • 3. First complete human genome map published in 2003.
  190. Genetic disorder
    • 1. Results when genes are defective.
    • 2. Is a pathological condition caused by absent (or extra?) or damaged genes.
    • 3. Some disorders are obvious at birth while others may 'manifest' or become evident at another time throughout life.
  191. Cystic fibrosis
    • 1. Known as CF. It is present at birth.
    • 2. Functional disorder of the exodocrine glands primarily affecting lungs & disgestive process.
    • 3. Caused by autosomal recessive trait especially prevelant in Caucasian populations.
  192. Down (or Down's) Syndrome
    • 1. Caused by Trisomy 21.
    • 2. Associated with:
    • ..... * Characteristic facial appearance
    • ..... * Learning disabilities
    • ..... * Physical abnormalities such as heaert valve disease
  193. Hemophilia (spelled haemophilia in most of world)
    • 1. A group of bleeding disorders in which a clotting factor is missing and causes abnormal blood-clotting.
    • 2. A blood coagulation disorder.
    • 3. Characterized by spontaneous hemorrhages or severe, intractable bleeding following an injury.


    4. Recessive sex-linked (on x-chromosome) trait.
  194. Huntington's disease (was known as Huntington's chorea)
    • 1. Known as HD. Most common in Western european populations.
    • 2. Autosomal dominant trait meaning even if only one parent has it the offspring has a 50% of having the disease.
    • 3. Causes nerve degeneration eventually resulting in uncontrolled movements and loss of some mental abilities.
    • 4. Symptoms most often appear in midlife.
  195. Notes to Self:
    • ..... 1. Due to genetic anticipation, Huntington's disease manifests at a younger age and with more severity with each succeeding affected generation.
    • ..... 2. Chorea refers to incoordination and sposmodic movements of limbs and face.
  196. Muscular dystrophy
    • 1. Known as MD.
    • 2. Includes a group of genetic diseases.
    • 3.Characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of skeletal muscles that control movement.
  197. Phenylketonuria
    • 1. Known as PKU. Can be detected by blood test at birth.
    • 2. Essential digestive enzyme phenylaline is missing.
    • 3. If untreated, it results in progressive and severe mental retardation.
    • 3. Autosomal recessive metabolic disorder that can be managed with care dietary supervision IF detected early.
  198. Tay-Sachs disease
    • 1. Known as TSD.
    • 2. An invariably fatal genetic disorder in which harmful quantities of a fatty substance build up in tissue and nerve cells in the brain.
    • 3. Both parents must carry the mutated gene for their child to be affected. (Note: It is an autosomal recessive trait carried on chromosome 15.)
    • 4. Disease progression:
    • .....* Babies typically appear healthy at birth
    • .....* Development seems normal for first few months
    • .....* Development slows
    • .....* Deterioration of mental & phsycial abilities begin
    • .....* Progressive blindness, paralysis & early death.
    • 5. Note: Most common among the Ashkenazi Jewish population The NIH estimates 1 of every 27 members of this population carry the gene. The same mutation is also common in the Cajun population of Louisiana.)
  199. Congenital disorder
    • 1. Abnormal condition that exists at the time of birth that is NOT genetic in origin.
    • 2. There are 3 types. Something happens due to:
    • .....a. prenatal influence
    • .....b a developmental disorder
    • .....c. birth injury - which includes both:
    • .......... (1) premature birth
    • .......... (2) an injury received during birth
  200. Developmental disorder
    • 1. 1 of 3 types of congenital disorders
    • 2. Also known as 'birth defect.'
    • 3. Results from an anomoly (deviation from what is considered normal) or malformation such as the absence of a limb.
    • 4. There are 2 types of developmental disorders:
    • .....* Anomoly
    • .....* Atresia
  201. Anomoly
    • 1. Deviation from what is considered normal.
    • 2. 1 of 2 types of developmental disorders, a type of congenital disorder.
    • 3. The second type of developmental disorder is atresia.
  202. Atresia
    • 1. Describes:
    • .....a. Congenital absence of a normal opening
    • .....b. Failure of a structure to be tubular.
    • ........Example: Anal atresia is the congenital absence of an opening at the bottom of the anus.
    • 2. 1 of 2 types of developmental disorders, a type of congenital disorders..
    • 3. The second type of developmental disorder is anomoly.
  203. Note to Self: From a practical standpoint remember it after the test as "the congenital absence or poor developemnt of a body opening" - either internal (such as biliary or pulomonary atresia) or external (such as anal or vaginal atresia.)
  204. Prenatal influences
    • 1. This includes the mother's health and behavior as well as medical care received - or not received - prior to delivery.
    • 2. 1 of 3 types of congenital disorders.
    • 3. Examples:
    • .....* Rubella (measles)
    • Causes birth defects if mother contracts rubella, especially in 1st trimester
    • .....* Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FTD)
    • .......... a. Caused by mother's consumption of alcohol during pregnancy.
    • .......... b. Results in characteristic physical and behavioral traits such as:
    • ............... (1) Growth abnormalities
    • ............... (2) Mental retardation
    • ............... (3) Premature birth
    • ............... (4) Low birth weight
    • 4. The other 2 types of congenital - non-genetic - disorders are:
    • .....* Developmental disorders
    • .....* Premature birth/birth injuries.
  205. Premature birth &
    Birth injuries
    • 1. 1 of 3 types of congenital - non-genetic - disorders.
    • 2. Premature birth:
    • .....* Birth occuring earlier than 37 weeks.
    • .....* Can cause serious health problems.
    • .....* Issues with breathing and heart are common.
    • 3. Birth injuries:
    • .....* Not present before events surrounding the birth.
    • 4. Example: Cerebral palsy - Results from brain damage caused by premature birth OR inadequate oxygen supply during birth.
    • 5. The other 2 types of congenital disorders are:
    • .....(a) Developmental disorders and
    • .....(b) Prenatal influences

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