disease wk 3

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joyjohnson
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132406
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disease wk 3
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2012-02-02 19:32:45
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disease wk 3
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  1. infection
    • invasion and multiplication of microorganisms in or on the body tissue that produces
    • sign
    • symptoms
    • immune responses
  2. infectious diseases...
    can be very difficult to overcome due to:

    developing resistance to antibiotics,

    differenct strains which a single vaccination can't protect against

    localize into hard to reach areas (CSN, bone)
  3. bacteria
    single cell micro organisms with well-defined cell walls that can grow independently on artificial media without need for other cells

    can be found on objects...chairs, atm buttons
  4. virus
    subcellular organism independent of host

    can't replicate but invades host cells and forces it to produce additional viruses

    basically from person to person
  5. precautions:
    standard
    • hand washing before and after patient contact
    • gloves
    • alcohol based sanitizers
  6. precautions
    contact
    direct or indirect contact with blood and or bodily fluid

    requires all standard precautions along with gown to be worn

    may also need mask if there is a chance of splash
  7. precautions
    airborne
    include all standard precautions along with

    respirator due to transmission of viruses through air

    hospital rooms can have special air handling and ventilation procedures

    • infections all over their bodies
    • at risk ...cancer patients
  8. precautions
    droplet
    require standard precautions along with

    mask-since virus travels through the air and be inhaled

    • very common with respiratory infections, through sneezing,
    • coughing,
    • eye conjunctivitis
  9. diagnosis
    staphylococcal infection
    bacterial infection that can occure on/in:

    • skin(boils, abscesses)
    • nasal mucosa
    • axilla and or groin
  10. diagnosis
    methicillin(MRSA)
    resistant staphylococcal aureus infection(MRSA)

    bacterial infection that is easily spread from direct person to person contact

    skin and wounds

    endemic in:

    • hospitals
    • SNF
    • care centers
    • can be hospitalized or community acquired

    people most at risk are:

    • immune comprised
    • burn patients
    • intubated patients
    • people with central lines
    • surgical wounds
    • dermatitis
    • prosthetic devices
    • heart valves
    • post operative wound infection

    cause

    • transmitted by healthcare workers hands that were not properly washed/sanitized
    • also can develop with overuse of antibiotics

    can be carried in nasal canal(nares)

    • signs:
    • small red bumps that resemble pimples, boils, or spider bites.

    can quickly turn deep and painful causing life threaening infection in joints, bones, surgical wounds, heart valves, lungs and the blood sream

    • treatment:
    • oral antibiotics along with isolation until cultures are negative

    ususlly vancomycin but can turn into VRE(GI tract and urine)
  11. diagnosis
    Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus infection(VRE)
    bacterial infection that is resistant to the antibiotic Vancomycin that is based in the GI tract, urine.

    Cause:

    spread through direct contact between health care providers and the patient along with direct contact on surfaces.

    • VRE can live on hard surfaces for up to 4 weeks along with
    • patient gowns
    • bed linens
    • handrails
    • table tops

    Occurs in people who are:

    • immunosuppressed
    • history of antibiotic use
    • catheters
    • central lines
    • elderly
    • repeated hospitalizations
    • cancer or chronic renal failure
    • cardiothoracic/intra-abdominal surgery
    • open wounds in pelvic or abdominal area
    • exposure to other VRE patients

    signs:

    no signs and the infection are usually found by accident through blood/urine lab work

    Treatment:

    antimicrobial medications along with proper sanitization and hygiene

    isolation is needed un VRE is clear
  12. diagnosis
    clostridium difficile infection(C-Diff)
    bacterial infection that is caused by antibiotic associated diarrhea. bowel

    stats:

    10-20% of patients experience occurrencee within 14-30 days

    • cause:
    • antibiotics that disrupts the bowel flora.
    • c-diff is transmitted from patient to patient by contaminated hands of healthcare workers

    indirectrly through equipment such as bedpans, urinals, call bells, bed rails, floors, toliet seats

    occurs in:

    • people who are prescribed numerous antibiotics
    • having abdominal surgery
    • immune-compromised
    • pediatric patients
    • nursing home patients

    signs:

    asymptomatic carrier to severe colitis

    • symptoms occur 1-2 days after antibiotic therapy is started
    • can last 2-3 months after the last dose
    • soft, unformed, watery diarrhea
    • more than 3 stools in 24 hours
    • foul smelling/bloody stools
    • abdominal pain
    • cramping
    • tenderness/fever

    treatment:

    • withdrawing the causative antibiotics
    • other antibiiotics are prescribed like vancomycin
  13. genetic
    result from:

    single-gene alterations

    chromosomal abnormalities

    multifactorial errors
  14. genetic
    study of
    heredity and analysis of possible defects in chromosomal reproduction or disease processs that can be passed from one generation to the next
  15. genotype
    gene composition
  16. phenotype
    outward appearance
  17. genetic
    • 46 chromosomes
    • 22 pairs of autosomes
    • 1 pair of sex xhromosomes
    • (female XX/male XY)
  18. genetic
    tests:
    • genetic testing and
    • counseling to prevent passing genes onto possible future children

    pedigree(family tree)

    karyotype(chromosome analysis)

    biochemical (blood, urine, tissue analysis)

    amniocentesis(needle aspiration of amniotic fluid-can predict over 600 genetic disorders)
  19. osteogensis imperfect
    OI
    AKA:

    brittle bones

    stats:

    • occurs in 1 out of 30,000 live births
    • 25% have fractures at birth

    fractures increase around puberty

    • heredity disease of bones and connective tissue that may cause skeletal fragility, thin skin,
    • blue sclerae(white eyes)
    • poor teeth
    • hypermobility of joints
    • progressive deafness

    can be fatal upon first few day/wks

    cause:

    autosomal dominant inheritance of defect in the amount of Type I collagen/bone matrix

    signs:

    • fractures with minimal trauma
    • yellow/grayiush bluye teeth
    • deep blue-black whites of eyes
    • impaired hearing
    • skeletal deformities
    • poor growth rate

    treatment:

    • deformity prevention by traction
    • immobilization
    • rehabilitation
    • quick fracture correction
    • medication for bone strengthening
    • education on prevention methods
  20. Cystic Fibrosis
    generalized dysfunction of the exocrine glands that affect multiple organ systems

    baby tastes salty

    cause:

    transmitted as an autosomal recessisive trait that is chromic and life expectancy is approximately 40(was 16 years of age prior to medical improvements)

    genetic abnormality of chromosome 7

    stats:

    most fatal and genetic disease in caucasian children (norhtern european ancesry)

    1 in 2000 live births while lowest incidence is in Africian Americans (1/17,000)

    occurs equally in males and females

    Signs:

    usually apparent on birth (small intestine blockage)

    but may take years to fully develop

    • major aberrations in sweat glands
    • respiratory
    • GI function
    • arrhythmias
    • wheezing
    • dry/nonproductive cough
    • dyspnea
    • barrel chest
    • cyanosis
    • clubbing of fingers and toes
    • intestinal obstructions
    • abdominal distention
    • vomiting
    • constipation/dehydration

    treatment:

    goal is for the person to live an normal life as possible

    • increase salt intake
    • low fat by high protein/calorie diet
    • breathing exercises
    • secretion management/removal
    • respiratory/breathing treatment
    • exygen supplement
    • postural and excerises to increase lung capacity/flexibility
    • medications to combat symptoms
  21. down syndrome
    not-down's syndrome

    Trisomy 21

    • is the most common
    • correlated with increased parental age

    trisome 18 (2nd most common)

    • presents with intrauterine growth(smaller head)
    • retardation
    • microcephaly
    • congenital heart defects which is fatal or poorly prognosis(30-50% die within first 2 months
    • 90% die w/i first year
    • of the surviving % severe-profound mental retardation

    Trisomy 13 (3rd most common)

    brain/facial abnormalities along with severe

    • cardiac
    • FI(functional impairment)/limb malformation which many fetus spontaneously abort during preganacy
    • 50-70% die w/i 1 month
    • 75% die w/i first year
    • remaining surviving % severe-profound mental retardation
  22. down syndrome
    cause:

    spontaneous abnormality in chromosome causing extra copy of chromosome

    signs:

    • mental retardation
    • dysmprphic facial features
    • flat face
    • prtruding tongue
    • small mouthand chin
    • congenital heart defect
    • respiratory infections
    • acute leukemias
    • short stature/extremeties
    • wide space between1/2 toes
    • hypotonicity
    • delayed puberty
    • poor muscle reflexes

    stats:

    44% of children who have congenital heart defect die w/i the first year

    1/660-800 livebirths, increase w/ mother over 34/father over 42. 1/40

    parents under 20 1/2000

    problems:

    • self-care
    • productivity
    • leisure
    • sensorimotor
    • cognitive
    • psychosocial
    • mental retardation
    • hypotonicity
    • strength
    • self-feeding
    • language
    • delayed milestones
    • decreased physical capacity such as heart disease
    • malaignment of C1-C2/risk for spinal cord injuries
    • poor coordination
    • delayed relfexes
    • poor attending
    • poor abstract thinking
    • behavior
    • limited social development

    treatment:

    • no known cure
    • surgery to correct heart defects
    • sometime protruding tongue
    • antibiotics for chronic infections
    • therapies to address development/mobility
  23. neutral tube defects
    serious birth defect of the spine/brain which is the result of failure of the neural tube to close which occurs approximately 28 days after conception

    cause:

    exposure to teratogen, multiple chromosome abnormality, genetic and environmental factors such as lack of folic acid in mother diet

    stats:

    • increased incidence in Briltish Isles and low incidence in southern China/Japan
    • in the us,n/s carolina have twice the incidence of NTD
    • more common in caucasian vs african american

    NTD:

    50% spinal bifida, anencephaly 40% and encephalocele 10%

    spinal bifida:

    incomplete closure of one or more vertebrae w/o protrusion of the spinal cord or meninges

    if protrusion of the spinal cord occurs outside the spine w/i a sac

    2 types:

    myelomeningocele(contains cerebrospinal fluid and portion of the spinal cord or nerve root

    meningocele (sac contains only menings and CSF)
  24. encephalocele
    saclike portion of the meninges and brain protrude gthrough a defective opening in the skull
  25. anencephaly
    most severe NTD

    most severe NTD

    • entire top of skull is missing
    • abnormal and incomplete closure of the top most end of the neural tube

    along with missing brain stem and part of spinal cord(fatal)

    signs:

    • depression/dimple
    • tufts of soft hair
    • port wine stain
    • soft fatty deposits on the skin ovfer the defect
    • neurological dysfunction
    • paralysis
    • bowel/bladder incontinence
    • clubfoot
    • hydrocephalus
    • possible mental retardation

    treatment:

    • prompt neurosurgical repair
    • continual assessmenet of growth/development
    • medications/intervention for lower extremity
    • bowel/bladder incontinence
  26. cancer
    broad grouping of diseases of which all are linked by the presence of malignant tumor cells in the body

    • a cellular structure that has lost normal controls with results in
    • unregulated growth,
    • lack of differentiation,
    • invasion into surrounding tissues metastasis to other sites in the body
  27. cancer can develop
    in any tissue of any organ at any age of which there are 200 types of cancer.

    some can be treated and others are resistant to all known treatments
  28. benign(slow)
    or malignant tumors(fast)
    begign are composed of normal cells that resemble host tissue, grow slowly, encapsulated and do not metastasize

    can kill or paralyze if they grow in places where surgery has occurred or radiation is not possible, compresses vital tissues.

    maliganant tumors are fast growing that are abnormal to the host area and spread via lymphatic and circulatory systems.
  29. metastases
    pieces of tumor that have broken off from the main tumor

    • traveled in the circulatory system
    • reseeding themselves in new organs or tissues of the body
  30. biggest influence of cancer
    prevention

    causes:

    • mutations in genes
    • chromosomal abnormalities
    • viruses
    • parasites
    • chgemicals(occupationsl, lifestyle, drug carcinogens
    • ultraviolet radiation
    • ion

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