research methods

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Anonymous
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132413
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research methods
Updated:
2012-02-02 10:37:07
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methods
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exam 1
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  1. Intro:
    • Research: an organized process for obtaining valid answers to questions
    • Research method: the techniques used to obtain valid
    • answers to questions
    • Family Research methods: the techniques used to
    • obtain valid answers to questions about families
  2. Ways of Knowing:
    • Democratic judgment, Authority, Necessary truth (Death)
    • "gut" feeling, Experience, Legal reasoning, Empirical judgment (observe and record), Experiment (systematic
    • control of variables)
  3. Objectives:
    • Access: science based info
    • Evaluate: credibility of info
    • Appreciate: social, ethical, and contextual
  4. Characteristics of a well organized research process:
    • Ethical: (conforming or accepted, professional standards of conduct) Respectful: act toward with special or high care and concern) Beneficial: (being useful or helpful)
    • Based on the work of others (edge of knowledge: the junction of what's known and what is yet to be known )
    • Incremental
    • Can be replicated
    • Can be generalized to other settings
    • Doable
    • Is cyclical and
    • generates research questions
  5. Cycle of Research
    • Ask a question
    • Edge of knowledge
    • Research questions: general question about meaning, content, association, or level
    • Hypothesis: formal, testable statement of expectation
    • 1. Experimental (research) hypothesis: specific statement of inequality/association
    • 2. Null Hypothesis: specific statement of equality/ no
    • association
    • Identifying important factors/variables
    • Factor: something that actively contributes to a result
    • Variable: something that changes (varies)
    • 1. Dependent variable: the result of interest (outcome)
    • 2. Independent variable: factor of interest (manipulated)
    • 3. Control variable: a factor of little interest (removed)
    • Formulate hypothesis
    • Collect information
    • Test hypotheses
    • Work with the hypothesis
    • Reconsider the theory…then start over again

    • According to Salkind, what do all well-executed article do?
    • c. All follow a standard sequence
  6. Stages of Research
    • Stage 1: Exploration
    • Know almost nothing about the research topic
    • question: What are the factors/variables of this topic
    • methods: Interview, observation, 1 time point
    • goal: identify the factors and dependent variable

    • Stage 2: Description
    • Know possible factors and dependent variable, and important factors
    • question: how much, how often, what is the content, about the factors and dependent variable
    • methods: interview, obs, survey, 1+ time point
    • goal: describe the factors and dependent variable

    • Stage 3: Explanation
    • Have an untested hypotheses about the relationships among variables
    • question: is factor X related to dependent variable Y
    • methods: interview, obs, survey, 1+time point
    • goal: support or reject hypothesis

    • Stage 4: Prediction
    • Have a tested hypothesis about the relationships among variables
    • question: if X occurs, how often/when will Y occur?
    • method: Interview, obs, survey, 2+ time points
    • goal: predict the occurrence of dependent variable

    • Stage 5: Intervention
    • Have solid information about what changes the occurrence of he dependent variable
    • question: if factor X is changed in a limited sample, how much will the dependent variable change?
    • method: interview, obs, survey, experiment, 2+ time points
    • goal: predictability change occurrence of dependent variable

    • Stage 6: Evaluation
    • Know how to change the occurrence of the outcome in a limited sample
    • question: if factor "X" is changed in a population, how much will the dependent variable change?
    • method: interview, obs, survey, experiment, 2+ time points on a much larger scale (population)
    • goal: predictably change occurrence of dependent variable

    • After reading today's Meltzoff reading, you now know that a study's research question….
    • d. All of the above

    • Research question
    • Existence: stage 1, ask a question, collect relevant info
    • Description: stage 2, ask a question, collect relevant info, identify import factors
    • Classification: stage 2, ask a question, collect relevant info, identify import factors
    • Composition: stage 2, ask a question, collect relevant info, identify import factors
    • Relationship: stage 3, whole cycle
    • Descriptive-Comparative: stage 3, whole cycle
    • Causality: stage 4, whole cycle
    • Causality comparative: stage 5, whole cycle

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