the grammatical term for the noun of or pronoun from which another pronoun derives its meaning
an opposition or contrast of ideas that is often expressed in balanced phrases or clauses.
a figure of speech in which an absent person or personified object is addressed by aspeaker
when acharacter or a thing is elevated to such a high status that it appears godlike.
a word or phrase that follows as noun or pronoun for emphasis or clarity.
to attempt to convince the reader to agree with a point of view, to make agiven decision, or to pursue a particular course of action
The thesis, claim, or proposition that a writer puts forward in argument.
a type of internal rhyming in which vowel sounds are repeated.
The thesis or proposition put forth in argument
the writer arranges and sorts people, places, or things into categories according to theirdiffering characteristics, thus making them more manageable for the writer and more understandablefor the reader.
an expression that has become ineffective through overuse
a quality of good writing that results when all sentences, paragraphs and longer divisionsof an essay are naturally connected
characteristic of or appropriate to spoken language or to writing that seeksits effect. Colloquial expressions are informal, as chem., gym, come up with, be at loose ends, won’tand photo illustrate
Comparison and Contrast
the writer points out the similarities and differences between two or more subjects in thesame class or category.
the single mood, atmosphere, or quality a writer emphasizes in a piece ofdescriptive writing
a version of a piece of writing at a particular stage in the writing process
When the writer makes their prose conform to the functions of the language
A work that expresses sorrow
the placement of important ideas and words within sentences and longer units of writingso that they have the greatest impact
a relatively short piece of nonfiction in which the writer attempts to make one or moreclosely related points
the characteristic spirit or ideal that informs a work
a mild or pleasant sounding expression that substitutes for a harsh, indelicate, orsimply less pleasant idea
something has beenimagined or invented in the telling of the occurrence.
an umbrella term for all uses of language that imply an imaginativecomparison.
the limitation that a writer gives his or her subject
a purposeful hint placed in a work of literature to suggest what may occur later inthe narrative
a set of rules that specify how a given language is used effectively.
a figure of speech in which exaggeration is used to achieve emphasis
a word or phrase that is used habitually with a particular meaning in a language
A mental picture that is conjured by specific words and associations, but there can be auditory and sensory components as well
The use of reason as a controlling principle in an argument
a figure of speech in which two unlike things are compared directly, usually for emphasisor dramatic effect
a figure of speech in which something is referred to by using the name of somethingthat is associated with it
the prevailing or dominant feeling of a work, scene or event.
to tell a story, to tell what happened
Objective writing is factual and impersonal, whereas subjective writing, sometimes calledimpressionistic writing, relies heavily on personal interpretation.
an effect created by words that have sounds that reinforce their meaning
a belief or conclusion not substantiated by positive knowledge or proof
the thoughtful arrangement and presentation of one’s points or ideas
A grammatical term that describes the relationship of a writer or speaker to an audience byexamining the pronouns that are used
the character created by the voice and narration of the speaker of a text
A figure of speech in which ideas or objects are described as having human qualities or personalities.
Point of View
The particular perspective from which a story is told is called the point of view.
all the activities that take place before a writer actually starts a rough draft.
answers the question how?And explains how something works or gives step-by-step directions for doing something
when the writer shares his or her writing with theintended audience.