small nuclear RNAs (typically ~100-300 nucleotides long),
Complexes formed by snRNA with other proteins in a spliceosome
The binding ability of U1 to the 5' splice site is because?
It has complimentary snRNAs to the 5' that help it to localize
After the U1 binds the 5', ________ binds to the 3' splice site.
U2AF (auxiliary factor)
After the U1 binds the 5' and U2AF binds to the 3' splice site. The following _____ binds and then ______ will bind with conserved A in the intron. Then _______ and _______ are free to diffuse away.
SF1 and U2AF
Which (2) snRNPs of the spliceosome pull together the various ends of the intron? Which recruits additional (3)________ namely _____ , ______, and _______. Now the hydroxyl attack happens.
U1 and U2,
additional snRNPs, U4, U5, and U6
What happens in a splicing reaction (3 steps)?
The conserved A is covalently attached to the G at the beginning of the intron (5')end. One end of the RNA is cut leaving a lasso (loop) structure on the end of the mRNA. Then another hydroxyl attack where the exon attacks 3' splice site, cutting the intron free and attaching the two ends of the exons together.
T/F: In GU-AG introns, splicing takes place by hydroxyl attacks that bind the end of one exon to the beginning of another exon.
True, at least in the GU-AG introns,
In the human genome, what % of genes have 0 introns?
If mRNA is not linear, how can splicing in the correct location be done?
1) in 3D structures, the outside sites are available to splice first,
2) proteins and other factors
What is the role of an Exonic Splicing Enhancer(ESE) in splicing?
promote the inclusion of a particular exon in the mRNA
What is the role of an Exonic Splicing Silencer(ESS) in splicing?
promote the exclusion of a particular exon in the mRNA
What is the role of an Intronic Splicing Enhancer (ISE) in splicing?
promote the inclusion of a particular intron in the mRNA
What is the role of an Intronic Splicing Silencer(ISS) in splicing?
promote the exclusion of a particular intron in the mRNA
What are Antisense Oligonucleotides?
short pieces of ssDNA or ssRNA that are complimentary and designed for certain sequences in the mRNA to alter transcription.
What are some possiblities that Antisense Oligonucleotides can alter transcription?