Card Set Information
The study of hematology disorders through pathophysiology
What are normal values for RBCs and hemoglobin respectively?
4.5 – 6.2 million/cu mm (mm3) andWomen - 12-16 &Men - 14-18 grams/dL
What is iron deficiency anemia?
A microcytic, hypochromic anemia (low MCV, MCH, MCHC)
What is the pathophysiology of immune thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP)?
A disorder in which antibodies usually IgG coat platelets that are then destroyed by the spleen
What is acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)?
Overproduction of lymphoblasts, abrupt onset, rapid progression in children
What is chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)?
Malignant granulocytes that carry the Philadelphia chromosome.
What initiates a sickle cell crisis causing anemia?
RBC shape changes in response to dehydration, hypoxia or acidosis
What are manifestations of any anemia regardless of cause?
Tachycardia, tachypnea, dyspnea, fatigue, pale, cool extremities
What are characteristics of hemoglobin F?
Carries 8 molecules of oxygen and comprises 70% of a newborn’s blood
What is an increased MCV, MCH, and MCHC?
Indicates a large RBC and used to diagnose Vitamin B12 or folate deficiency anemias
What are manifestations of aplastic anemia?
Fever and chills; petechiae, bruising, and nosebleeds; tachycardia, tachypnea, and fatigue
Hemoglobin synthesis requires this mineral
What is chronic lymphocytic leukemia?
Malignant transformation of B cells that invade lymph nodes
What are manifestations of hematologic malignancies?
Anemia, bleeding, bruising & frequent infections
What is secondary polycythemia?
Increased RBC in response to chronic hypoxia
What are risk factors for vitamin B12 deficiency anemia?
Chronic alcoholism, gastric bypass surgery, chronic atrophic gastritis
What are normal values for WBCs and platelets respectively?
5,000 - 10,000/cu mm3 and 150,000 -400,000/ mm3
What manifestations would the nurse expect for a client whose platelet count is 50,000.mm3?
Bruising and prolonged bleeding times
What are manifestations for vitamin B12 deficiency
Paresthesias of hands and feet, ataxia, vibratory sense disturbances
What are manifestations of polycythemia?
Deep vein thrombosis, splenic and hepatic congestion
What are characteristics of B-cell, T-cell or NK cell lymphoma (non-Hodgkin lymphoma)?
Originates in B-cells, T-cells or NK cells.
What are characteristics of Hodgkin lymphoma?
Malignant disorder of lymph nodes with Reed Sternberg cell, spreads in a predictable manner.
What are manifestations of 40% loss of blood?
Hypotension, tachypnea, cold, clammy skin
What is pernicious anemia?
Autoimmune disease that destroys parietal cells that produce intrinsic factor needed to absorb Vitamin B12.
What is the significant of a high hematocrit (above 52%)?
That high lab value indicates dehydration or concentrated blood.
Compromises 30% of a newborn’s blood.
What is a manifestation of folic acid anemia?
Neural tube defect
What is opisthotonus?
The head and heel bent backward and body bowed forward.
What is multiple myeloma?
Proliferation of malignant plasma cells that infiltrate bone.