respiratory system note cards.txt

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respiratory system note cards.txt
2010-04-06 00:42:55

Biol 302 respiratory sytem
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  1. functions of the respiratory system
    gas exchange, maintain blood ph, olfactory, warm air, voice production, excretion of heat and waste, produces angiotensin converting enzyme, filters blood clotts.
  2. path of air
    nose--> nasal cavity --> pharynx--> larynx--> trachea--> bronchi--> bronchiole tree--> alveoli
  3. type 1 alveolar cells make...
  4. Type 2 alveolar cells make...
  5. pulmonary ventilation
    exchange between air and alveoli
  6. External respiration/Pulmonary respiration
    exchange between alveoli and blood in pulmonary capillaries
  7. internal respiration
    exchange between capillaries and tissue cells
  8. nerve that innervates the diaphragm
  9. cavities separated by the diaphragm
    thorasic and abdominal
  10. diaphragm
    flattens when it contracts so the chest cavity expands
  11. external intercostals
    raise rib cage up and out
  12. is inhalation an active process?
    yes muscle has to contract
  13. respiratory distress syndrome
    difficulty to breathe due to low levels of serfactant
  14. compliance
    how much effort is requires to stretch teh lungs and chest wall
  15. tuberculosis affect on complience
    lower because bacteria affects lung tissue
  16. pulmonary edema affect on complience
  17. serfactant difficiency affect on complience
  18. emphysema affect on complience
    lower due to loss of elastic fibers
  19. airway resistance
    constriction in the bronchioles
  20. asthma affect on airway resistance
    airflow is diminished to to constriction
  21. sympathetic system affect on airway resistance
    bronchodilation so diameter is larger and resistance is smaller
  22. partial pressure of oxygen in alveolar air
  23. partial pressure of carbondioxide in allveolar air
  24. contributors to high carbondioxide partial pressure
    1. gas exchange 2. greater solubility 3. mixing of gasses
  25. blood in alveoli has partial pressure of oxygen of
  26. blood in alveoli has partial pressure of co2 of
  27. factors affecting rate of diffusion
    d Partial pressure, solubility, surface area, distance, molecular weight, temperature,
  28. if the difference in partial pressure increases then rate of diffusion
  29. if the solubility increases the rate of diffusion
  30. if surface area increases the rate of diffusion
  31. if distance increases the rate of diffusion
  32. if molecular weight increases the rate of diffusion
  33. if temperature increases the rate of diffusion
  34. emphysema affect on rate of diffusion
    decrease due to break down in alveoli walls which decreases surface area
  35. pulmonary edema affect on rate of diffusion
    decrease due to fluid accumulation which increases diffusion distance
  36. high altitude sickness affect on rate of diffusion
    lower due to change in partial pressure being lower
  37. affinity
    the tightness with which hemoglobin binds oxygen
  38. if a cell is highly active oxygen will bind with _____ affinity
  39. If a cell is active, oxygen will be given off (more/less)
  40. low pH, _____ affinity
  41. high temperatures, ______ affinity
  42. Nitric oxide causes
  43. where is the control center located
    the pons and the medulla
  44. medullary rhthmycity area
    controls rhythm of normal breathing, has 2 areas--> inspiratory and expiratory
  45. Inspiratory area
    causes contraction on diaphragm and external intercostals for 2 seconds during normal breathing
  46. expiratory area
    allows us to exhale air after forcefully inhaling
  47. pneumotaxic area
    controls duration of inhalation so lungs don't over fill
  48. apneustic area
    prolongs inhalation to take a deep breath
  49. asthma
    causes release of histamine, prostaglandins and leukotrienes which cause bronchoconstriction making it hard to breathe
  50. pneumonia
    inflammation and infection of alveoli due to bacteria or viruses
  51. tuberculosis
    damage to lungs due to fibrous nodules and scar tissue
  52. cystic fibrosis
    no chlroide channel so mucus accumlation occurs
  53. emphysema
    break down of aveoli
  54. lung cancer
    can occur in primary bronchus cells, epethelia of the bronial tubes, broncial glands and alveolar cells