Human Sexuality Test 4 STDs

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awilli10
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13246
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Human Sexuality Test 4 STDs
Updated:
2010-04-06 00:51:22
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Fisher Topic 10 12 Human Sexuality test 4
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Test 4- Dr. Fisher STDs
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  1. Modes of Transportation
    • Direct sexual contact or sexual contact with infected semen, vaginal secretions, blood or body fluids
    • Maternal transfer
    • Sharing Contaminated needles through injectable drug use
  2. Chlamydia
    • bacterium
    • 1-30 days incubation period
    • diagnosed by a culture discharge
    • treated by antibiotics
  3. Signs and symptoms of Chlamydia
    • males: watery discharge, pain upon urination
    • females: watery discharge, PID
    • 50% of men and women do not have symptoms
  4. Most prevalent sexually transmitted bacterial pathogen in the U.S.
    • Chlamydia
    • 3 million cases annualy
  5. Gonorrhea
    • Bacterial
    • 1-30 day incubation
    • diagnosed by a culture discharge
    • treated by antibiotic in early stages/later untreatable
  6. Signs and symptoms of Gonorrhea
    • males: pus discharge, pain upon urination, can lead to sterility
    • females: usually asymptomatic, PID, can lead to sterility
  7. Epidemiology of Gonorrhea
    350,000 cases reported annually
  8. Genital Herpes (HSV)
    • viral
    • 2-12 incubation period
    • can be transmitted to newborn during delivery
    • recurrence- 5-8 times per year; 10 days per episode
    • no cure, antiviral therapies
  9. Signs and symptoms of Genital Herpes
    • vesicles
    • vesicles break down, crust over and form painful ulcers
    • entire first episode takes 5-12 days
    • flu-like symptoms
    • 45 million in US infected
  10. Nongonococcal Urethritis (NGU)
    • bacterial, caused by chlamydia in males
    • signs and symptoms: discharge and painful urination
    • treated with antibiotics
    • 3 million cases annually
  11. Venereal Warts (HPV)
    • viral
    • 3 month incubation period
    • presence of lesions-diagnosis
    • treatment: removal of lesions by chemical or laser surgery/non curable
  12. Signs and symptoms of HPV
    • cauliflower-like growths in genital and rectal areas
    • some have no symptoms
  13. What is indicated in 80% of all cervical cancer cases?
    HPV (venereal warts)
  14. Epidemiology of HPV
    20 million Americans
  15. Syphilis
    • bacterial
    • 3-4 week incubation period
    • diagnosed by a blood test
    • treated by penicillin or other antibiotic
  16. Signs and symptoms of syphilis
    {Primary}
    • chancre: painless indurated primary lesion of early syphilis
    • disappears within 1-5 weeks
  17. Signs and symptoms of Syphilis
    secondary
    • rash, 6 weeks later
    • appears on trunk, or mild on hands or feet
    • disappears without treatment 2-6 weeks
  18. Signs and symptoms of syphilis
    latency
    • damage to central nervous system
    • can transmit by donating blood
    • congenital syphilis
  19. epidemiology of syphilis
    • reduced numbers due to penicillin
    • mini epidemics in major metropolitan areas
  20. Chancroid
    • bacterial
    • 4-10 days incubation period
    • treated by antibiotics
  21. Signs and symptoms of Chancroid
    • chancre: granular, painful erosions
    • painful, swollen lymph glands in the groin
  22. Epidemiology of Chancroid
    • not common in U.S.
    • epidemics in developing countries
    • predominance in black and hispanic males; prostitution
  23. HIV/AIDS
    • viral
    • 8 weeks-6 month incubation period
    • blood test: ELISA, western blot- confirmatory test
    • oral test-detects HIV antibodies
  24. Signs and symptoms of HIV/AIDS
    • asymptomatic at first
    • early symptoms: fatigue, diarrhea, fever, night sweats, oral yeast infections, etc
    • opportunistic infections
  25. Treatment of HIV/AIDS
    • some medications available to lessen symptoms and opportunistic infections
    • AZT
    • protease inhibitors- acts as an enzyme to prevent replication
    • HAART- highly active antiretroviral therapy
  26. Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS
    • reportable by law in US
    • mostly males
    • 57% of AIDS patients have died
    • since 1996, there has been a dramatic decline in the number of AIDS cases
    • slight increase among heterosexual contact from 98-01
  27. Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)
    • viral
    • attacks the liver
    • blood test diagnosed
    • no cure; vaccine available; boost immune system
  28. signs and symptoms of Hepatitis B
    • jaundice
    • dark urine
    • fever
    • malaise
    • moderate liver enlargement and tenderness
  29. Epidemiology of Hepatitis B
    • 5% of US Population has HBV
    • Risks: heterosexual males and gay men
    • sexual transmission most common
  30. Pubic Lice
    • transmission: sexually, clothing/bedding, nits, eggs
    • 24-48 hour incubation period
    • treated by shampoos
  31. Signs and symptoms of Pubic Lice
    • visual confirmation
    • intense itching
    • skin irritation
    • sores from scratching
  32. Scabies
    • diagnosed by: infestation with mite, burrow under skin
    • treated by special lotion left on skin for 8-24 hours
  33. what age is HIV/AIDS more prevalent?
    • 15-25 years
    • early onset
    • more partners
    • unprotected
    • cervical tissue more susceptible
  34. Who is at greater risk of contracting STDs?
    • women
    • heterosexual women are receptive
    • asymptomatic in women (AIDS)
    • menstruation facilitates movement of pathogens
    • transmission to fetus/newborn
  35. Sexual orientation and order of contracting HIV/AIDS
    • heterosexual women
    • gay and bisexual men
    • heterosexual men least at risk
    • lesbians have lowest rates of infection
  36. where are STD's and HIV higher?
    urban areas
  37. Socioeconomic Status (SES)
    • people of lower SES tend to lack enabling factors
    • " " do not perceive themselves to be at risk
    • Poverty contributes to higher levels of drug use
  38. What Race/Ethnicity have the highest rates?
    African Americans and Hispanics
  39. What sexual/medical history contributes?
    • lifetime number of sexual partners
    • contraceptive use
    • history of injected drug use
    • prior STD history
  40. Lowest Risk
    • non-insertive
    • no exchange of bodily fluids
  41. Midlevel Risk
    • insertive and protected sex
    • insertive and not protected sex
  42. Highest risk
    insertive and not protected including ejaculation
  43. Latex Condoms
    • more effective against gonorrhea, chlamydia, trich, and HIV
    • prevents transmission from mucosal surfaces
    • not reliable for prevention of transmission by skin-to-skin contact: HPV, Herpes, Syphilis
  44. Women-Centered Barriers
    • Sponge
    • Diaphragm
    • Spermicides

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