The ability of the alveoli to expand when air is drawn in during inhalation.
Metabolism that can proceed only in the presence of O2
Occurs when a foreign body partially obstructs the patient's airway. The patient is able to move adequate amounts of air, but also exeriences some degree of respiratiory distress.
Mild airway obstruction
A device with a one-way valve and a face mask attached to a ventilation bag; when attached to a reservoir and connected to O2, it delivers more than 90% supplemental O2.
Space within the chest that contains the heart, major blood vessels, vagus nerve, trachea, major bronchi, and esophagus; located between the two lungs.
The term used to describe the amount of gas in air or dissolved in fluid, such as blood.
The nasal cavity; formed by the unionof facial bones and protects the repiratory tract from contaminants.
Surgical opening into the trachea
The volume of air moved through the lungs in 1 min minus the dead space; calculated by multiplying tidal volume (minus dead space) and respiratory rate; also referred to as minute volume.
Absence of spontaneous breathing
Forms the posterior portion of the oral cavity, which is bordered superiorly by the hard and soft palates, laterally by the cheaks, and inferiorly by the tongue.
Technique to open the airway by placing the fingers behind the angle of the jaw and brining the jaw forward; used for patients who may have a cervical spine injury.
Open, clear of obsruction
Breathing that requires greater than normal effort; may be slower or faster than normal and usually requires the use of accessory muscles.
Movement in which the skin pulls in around the ribs during inspiration.
Exchange of air between the lungs and the environment, spontaneously by the patient or with assistance from another person, such as an EMT.
Slow, shallow, irregular respirations or occasional gasping breaths; sometimes seen in dying patients.
The process of exchanging O2 and carbon dioxide.
A combination mask and reservoir bag system that is preferred way to give O2 in the pre-hospital setting; delivers up to 90% inspired oxygen and prevents inhaling the exhaled gasses (carbon dioxide).
A saftey system for large oxygen cylinders, designed to prevent the accidental attachment of a regulator to a cylinder containing the wrong type of gas.
American Standard System
Thin white bands of tough muscular tissue that are lateral borders of the glottis and serve as the primary center for speech production.
Irregular, ineffective respirations that may or may not have an identifiable pattern.
A dangerous condition in which the body tissues and cells do not have enough oxygen.
A complex structure formed by many independent cartilaginous structures that all work together; where the upper airway ends and the lower airway begins; also called the voice box.
A ventilation device attached to a control box that allows the variables of ventilation to be set. It frees the EMT to perform other tasks while the patient is being ventilated.
Automatic transport ventilator (ATV)
A process in which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
The upper airway tract or the passage above the larynx, which includes the nose, mouth, and throat.
A technique that is used with intubation in which pressure is applied on either side of the cricoid cartilage to prevent gastric distention and aspiration and allow better visualization of vocal cords; also call cricoid pressure.
The passive part of the breathing process in which the diaphragm and the inercostal muscles relax, forcing air out of the lungs.
Bypassing of oxygen-poor blood past non-functional alveoli to the left side of the heart.
In the context of airway, the introduction of vomitus or other foreign material into the lungs.
Thin membrane that covers the lungs
The amount of air that can be forcibly expelled from the lungs after breathing in as deeply as possible.
The production of whistling sounds during expiration such as occurs in asthma and bronchiolitis.
Breathing ino the lungs; a medication delivery route.
A body part or condition that appears on both sides of the midline.
Airway adjunct inserted into the nostril of an unresponsive patient, or a patient whith an altered level of consciousness who is unable to maintain airway patency independently.
Subdivision of the smaller bronchi in the lungs; made of smooth muscle and dilate or constrict in response to various stimuli.
a protective item, such as a pocket mask with a valve, that limits exposure to a patient's body fluids.
Monitor the levels of O2, carbon dioxide, and the pH of CSF and then provide feedback to the respiratory centers to modify the rate and depth of breathing based on the body's needs at any given time.
The process of delivering O2 to the blood by diffusion from the alveoli following inhalation into the lungs.
The metabolism that takes place in the absence of O2, the principle product is lactic acid.
A "backup system" to contro respiration; senses drop in the oxygen level in the blood.
The biochemical processes that result in production of energy from nutrients within the cells.
Metabolism (cellular respiration)
Shortenss of breath or difficulty breathing.
Thin membrane that lines the ches cavity.
Increased carbon dioxide level in the bloodstream.
Point at which the trachea bifurcates (divides) into the left and right mainstem bronchi.
An O2 delivery device in which O2 flows through two small, tuvelike prongs that fit into the patient's nostrils; delivers 24% to 44% supplemental O2, depending on the flow rate.
The volume of air that reaches the alveoli. It is determined by subtracting the amount of dead space air from the tidal volume.