Card Set Information
blood ap lec
What is blood composed off?
What represents percentage of RBC out of blood volume?
What are some physical characteristics of blood?
: 5-6 L, F: 4-5 L)
When does blood volume go up in women?
when they are pregnant
What are three basic functions of blood?
To distribute, regulate, and protect
What does blood distrubute?
respiratory gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide)
metabolic wastes away from cells
What does blood regulate?
How does blood help protect the body?
immune components (WBC)
What is blood's plasma mostly?
How many solutes are in blood?
What percentage of blood does plasma make up?
What protein make up 60% of plasma?
What three proteins are in plasma?
Albumin, globulins, fibrinogen
What does albumin contribute to?
What regulates water and maintains blood pressure?
Which protein in plasma makes antibodies?
Which protein in plasma makes fibers for clotting?
What are some nitrogenous substances found in plasma?
lactic acid, urea, creatine
What organic nutrients are found in plasma?
glucose, amino acids, carbohydrates
What five chemicals are found in plasma?
What does bicarbonate in plasma do?
acts as a buffer to maintain pH in blood
What respiratory gases are found in plasma?
oxygen and carbon dioxide
What percent of blood composition is RBC?
What blood cell has a biconcave disc shape?
Why do RBCs have a biconcave disc shape?
high surface area carries more oxygen
Which cell is bigger, RBC or WBC?
Which blood cell has no nucelus?
How long do RBCs live?
What characteristic of RBCs allow them to travel?
What is RBCs main function?
transport respiratory gases
What blood cell is filled with hemoglobin?
What are the hemoglobin contents?
preotin bonded with oxygen and carbon dioxide
How many hemoglobin are found in one RBC?
How many oxygen moelcules can bond with one hemoglobin?
What is made of four polypeptide chains bound to an atom of iron(Fe)?
What is the formation of blood cells in the red bone marrow called?
What bones does hematopoiesis take place in?
axial skeleton and girdles
What bones does hematopoiesis take place in, in the epihphysis?
femur and humerus
How long does hematopoiesis take?
What is the name of the stem cells that forms all blood cells?
What becomes of a hemocytoblast?
becomes a committed cell
What is a hemocytoblast that becomes committed to being an erythrocyte called?
What happens in phase 1 of erythropoiesis?
What happens in phase 2 of erythropoiesis?
What happens in phase 3 of erythropoiesis?
ejection of nucleus and enters into the bloodstream to mature
What hormone controls erythropoiesis?
What organ is erythropoietin released by?
What triggers the release of erythropoietin?
tissue's deman for oxygen
What increases the RBC count in circulating blood?
What condition triggers EPO to be made?
What nutrients does Erythropoiesis need?
Where is MOST iron stored in the bloodstream?
What organs is iron stored in?
liver, spleen, and bone marrow
What are some intracellular iron components?
ferritin and hemosiderin (protein-iron complexes)
What is circulating iron?
What is the erythrocyte's life span?
What do macrophages do?
engluf dying erythrocytes in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow
What seperates the dead erythrocytes heme and globin?
What happens to globin when it is broken down by macrophages?
broken down into amino acids released into the blood stream
What RBC disorder causes fatigue, paleness, chills, and shortness of breath?
What disorder is caused by an insufficient number of erythrocytes, or decreased/abnormal hemoglobin?
What is sickle cell anemia caused by?
Why would it be good to have one copy of the sickle cell gene?
advantage against malaria
What RBC disorder can be treated by blood transfusion or other oxygen treatment?
sickle cell anemia
What happens in polycythemia?
What RBC disorder is caused by low oxygen environments, oxygen deprived tissue, or a possible tumor on the kidney?
What RBC disorder shows high BP?
What leaves capillaries of the bloodstream via diapedesis?
What kind of spaces can leukocytes move through?
What WBC disorder is caused by infection, leukemia, or infectious mononucelosis?
What WBC disorder shows less than 5k/mm3 WBCs?
What are two types of WBC?
granulocytes and agranulocytes
What contain granules, have lobed nuclei, and are phacytic cells?
What is the most numerous leukocyte?
What do neutrophils do?
What is polymorphonuclear?
What leads the body's counter attack against parasitic worms?
What releases histamine to produce inflammation?
What chemical do basophils release to attract other WBC?
What does it mean to say that histamine acts as a vasodialator?
swells area by signaling more WBCs to the area
Which leukocyte is multi lobed?
Which leukocyte has red granules and is bi lobed?
Which leukocyte is granulated and bilobed but ithey are not obvious?
What leukocyte makes up 25% of WBCs?
Where are lymphocytes most located?
in lymphoid tissue
What are two types of lymphocytes?
Which lymphocyte is used in immunity?
Which lymphocyte gives rise to plasma cells that produce antibodies?
What is the largest leukocyte?
What leukocyte can morph into macrophages?
Which leukocytes is highly mobile and phagocytic?
What are platelets fragments of?
What are some treatments for leukemia?
bone marrow transplant
What is a cancerous overproduction of WBCs that are disfunctional?
What happens in hemostasis to stop bleeding?
vascular spasm - restrict amount of blood loss
platelet plug formation
What happens when platelets form a plug to stop a bleed?
platelets release chemicals to signal for more platel;ets to come to the site
What type of feedback system is the platelet plug formation?
What happens during coagulation when the body stops a bleed?
plateletes release chemicals
Prothrombin and thrombin are activated
Thrombin activates fibrinogen to fibrin
fibrin makes a mesh to trap blood cells
What is the difference between a thrombus and an embolus?
thrombus - clot develops and persists in unbroken blood vessel
embolus - a thrombus freely floating in blood stream
What substances are used to prevent clotting?
aspirin, heparin, warfarin
What is a common type of warfarin?
How does aspiring "thin" your blood?
Aspirin inhibits platelets
What promotes agglutination?