the total sum of a workforce's knowledge and ability that can be used for the organization's benefit.
creating and maintaining a workforce that is represented by groups of people of different age groups, ethnicities, genders, races, religions, and sexual orientations.
having preconceived unreasonable attitudes regarding members of a certain demographic, population, or group (race, gender, age, etc.) - sets the stage for diversity bias.
when members of a particular group are given substandard and unfair treatment in the organization.
Glass Ceiling Effect
an unseen barrier that stops minority groups and women from attaining high positions in organizations, despite adequate experience and qualifications.
the process by which different countries and regions have become interdependent in regard to resources, markets, and competition.
a person who can adapt to different jobs and careers due to possessing many different types of skills.
an arrangement of workers who collaborate to accomplish a collective goal.
an system that both responds to and has an effect on its enviroment
the cost of the various inputs compared to the value of the outputs.
a measure of input that describes how well resources were used in completing an objective.
a measure of output in the form of a goal or objective accomplishment.
the name given to managers in a non-profit or government organization.
the lowest-level management position.
oversee employees "on the front lines" who create the goods and/or services for the organization's customers. These managers interact with employees on a daily basis.
support the line workers with certian technical skills. An example of one in a car production facility is the director of human resources.
have expertise in a single area, such as production, accounting, human resources, sales, or marketing.
have an area of responsibility that encompasses many functional areas. This person in a furniture production plant would be in charge of production, accounting, sales, and inventory.
Planning, organizing, leading, and controlling and organization's resources.
the psychological process of determining appropriate activites that achieve the objectives and goals of the organization.
comes after planning, and is the process of coordinating financial, physical, and human resources to accomplish the plan in place.
motivating others to accomplish goals and objectives by fostering enthusiasm and dedication.
keeping track of performance and taking corrective action if the expected outcomes are not reached. This is an especially important function if an organization is in a constantly changing or unpredictable enviroment.
in charge of leading and managing either the whole organization or a large part of it. Titles include president, CEO, vice president.
monitor and leade large divisions that are made up of numerous smaller business units. Examples include plant managers, general managers, and divisional managers.
the way a manager communicates with others, both inside and outside of the work unit
Interpersonal Role: motivating others and giving them focus.
Interpersonal Role: implementing new policies and acting them out as an example to a subordinate.
Interpersonal Role: acting as a "go-between" in groups and making sure activities are coordinated.
the way a manager analyzes and passon information.
Informational Role: passing information on to others.
Informational Role: being the official person to give out the information.
Informational Role: obsserving in order to find new information.
the way a manager utilizes information when making a decision; the manager will attempt to solve problems and take advantage of opportunities.
Decisional Role: deciding how much of the budget and other resources goes to each business unit, team, or project.
Decisional Role: helping to solve various problems, including clashes between individuals and groups.
Decisional Role: cutting deals and making agreements with others both inside and outside of the work unit.
Decisional Role: taking advantage of opportunities by putting forth new courses of action.
allows managers to prioritze goals, make action plans, and create timelines for completion.
creates good relationships with many acquaintances and associates both inside and outside of the firm.
the ability to utilize one's network connections and relationships to accomplish goals.
a special knowledge or expertise that allows a person to operate in a specialized field.
includes a person's social ability and the capacity to work well with others.
the ability to manage ourselves and our relationships effectively.
allow a manager to think about and analyze complex or abstract situations.
a type of organizational structure that has a specific hierarchy of authority, a well-defined division of labor, clear rules and procedures on behavior and performance, impersonal relationships, and carreer advancement based on merit.
breaking a task down into its fundamental activities.
when a group of workers being studied are given special attention, and subsequently improve their performance because of this.
how individuals and groups act within organizations.
Human Relations Movement
emphasized the importance of managers focusing on good human relations in order to increase worker output.
assumes the average person:
would rather follow than lead
does not like working
is lazy and unmotivated
is very irresponsible
assumes that the average person:
is willing to work, since it is a natural human activity (play or rest)
when one person's expectations cause another person to act as orginally expected.
using quantitative analysis and mathemetical tools in management, believing that problems can be solved with the appropriate data and the correct mathematical models.
a field of study that analyzes the way goods and services are rendered and attempts to improve the process, viewing an organization as a system.
a set of smaller coordinated parts that work in tandem to produce a desired result.
the smaller coordinated parts of a system that work together.
utilizing different management approaches when the situation calls for it.
an organization that is constantly improving and evolving since it changes operations and processes as a result of past experiences.
uses actual scientific data and information on which approaches really work to make management decisions, rather than blindly accepting common management platitutdes or the current management trends.
the condition of need fulfillment.
Maslow's Needs Theory
every human has five types of needs, and that the quest to satisfy these needs follows a hierarchy or orderly progression from lowest to highest.
once a need is satisfied, a person will move on to strive to satisfy the next higher need.
Alderfer's Needs Theory
a new take on Maslow's hierarchy. Revised with only three needs: existence, relatedness, and growth.
all the basic physical and material needs that every person has.
(Maslow's physiological and security needs combined.)
includes all needs to interact with others, positively or negatively.
the highest for of needs for both Alderfer and Maslow. Corresponds to Maslow's Self-Actualization needs.
Can be furthur subdivided into external and internal esteem.
Growth Need: can only be satisfied by relating to others; it requires the social approval of others.
Growth Need: is not dependent upon social approval, but is a function of how they feel about themselves and their accomplishments.
Frustration Regression Principle
when a person experiences frustration while striving to achieve a higher-order need, they will "regress" or go backward to a lower-order need that was more concrete and/or measurable.
McClelland's Manifest Needs
A theory related to Alderfer and Maslow
Similar to Alderfer, had three needs: the need for power, affiliation and achievement.
fundamental to the competency of a leader at any level in the organization.
fundamental to communicatoin effectiveness and social awareness.
Most researched of McClelland's three needs.
Critical to work performance, embodies taking on tasks that are challenging.
= nAch - Fear of Failure
our innate inclination to compare the goodness of our circumstances to the goodness of others' circumstances.
the belief or confidence that a person's effort will lead to performance.
the belief that, if you do perform, your performance will be noted and rewarded.
the degree to which the reward that you are given is valuable to you.
when a person (A) perceives that they are receiving relatively fewer outcomes (rewards) for their given inputs (efforts) than they person they compare themselves to (B).
a person's belief that the process of allocating rewards or punitive measures is just.
primarily focuses on the unfair distribution of resources.
a person's sense of fair treatment insofar as it involves the communication process.
Assumes an association between satisfaction and motivation.
Two-Factor Theory: those things that tend to be extrinsic to the job.
Low ratings relate to employee dissatisfaction with work.
Two-Factor Theory: tend to be intrinsic in nature, and they have the potential to create satisfaction (motivation) in employees.
Acts of Citizenship
receiving a sense of intrinsic reward for doing something good for nothing.
Cognitive Evaluation Theory
where a person experiences less motivation (because they experience less overall rewards) to complete a task that is rewarded or officially sanctioned by the organization or manager.
Also called, "crowding out."
Some tasks are so highly intrinsically rewarding that offering extrinsic rewards (pay or "credit") for them actually has a net effect of lowering the satisfaction the person receives from the act when they volunteer.
when one event (sight/sound/smell) automatically triggers a response in a person.
learnign associations between behaviors and consequences.
Based ont he law of effect.
Law of Effect
behaviors that are rewarded will tend to be repeated, while behaviors that are not rewarded will not.
Teaching elaborate behaviors by rewarding them for incremental (gradual) desirable changes in behavior.
Skinner with birds, mice.
when the desirablitity of a consequence (reward) diminishes over time because the person has a lesser desire for that particular reward.
a program of goal setting first popularized by Peter Drucker in his 1954 book, The Practice of Management.
Prescribes that the most effective goals are characterized by eight conditions.
1. Challenging 2. Attainable 3. Specific 4. Reward Contingent 5. Measurable 6. Feedback Richness 7. Jointly Set 8. Time Bound (9?) Morally Worthy
the number of different activities performed by an employee.
the extent to which the employee's work can be identified as a "meaningful whole" with a beginning and an end.
the degree to which an employee can perceive the impact of his/her work on the final product, other employees, or the work enviroment.
the level of control an employee has over deciding how and when work is completed.
information regarding performance.
That it be rich and timely is important, as it results in knowledge of the work outcomes.
Motivating Potential Score (MPS)
The formula used in calculating the motivational quality of jobs.
(Skill Variety + Task Identity + Task Significance)/3 x (Autonomy) x (Feedback)
the process of interpreting and organizing the sensations we attend to.
the process of organizing our enviromental stimuli into recognizable patterns. Four of the principles we use to assist in this effort include figure-ground separation, similarity, proximity, and closure.
Perceptual Organization: Perceiving objects that stand against a background.
Ex: missing nonverbal messages due to the verbal conversation, the figure.
Perceptual Organization: Stimuli that have common phsiycal traits are more likely to be grouped together than those that do not.
Ex: Athletic teams, or assigning different color schemes to different divisions within a plant.
Perceptual Organization: Stimuli that occur in the same proximity, either in space or in time, are often associated.
Ex: When you see two people together frequently, you may begin to associate a characteristic of one person to the other as well.
Perceptual Organization: Due to the fact that most stimuli we perceive are incomplete, we naturally tend to extrapolate information and project additional information to form a complete picture.
Ex: Seeing a pole in front of a stop sign, but completing the mental picture of the sign due to past memories.
the degree to which individuals have developed complex catagories for organizing information.
Allows us to differentiate people and events using multiple criteria, which increases the accuracy of our perceptions.
the tendency to allow one personality trait to influence our perceptions of other traits.
the process of systematically screening out information we don't wish to hear.
the tendency to attribute our own feelings and characteristics to others.
the tendency for first impressions and early information to unduly influence our evalutations and judgement.
categorizing individuals based on one or two traits, and attributing other characteristics to them based on their membership in that category.
The process of using a few attributes about an object to classify it and then responding to it as a member of a category rather than as a unique object.
a phenomenon that occurs when a person acts ina way that confirms another's expectations.
Also called a "Self-Fulfilling Prophecy"
enduring characteristics that describe an individual's attitudes and behavior.
Fundamental Attribution Error
the tendency to overestimate the influence of personality in understanding human behavior.
the assignment of responsibility and the cognitive process we use to understand why people act as they do.
represents the degree to which people are outgoing, social, assertive, active, and talkative.
refers to those who are shy, antisocial, passive, and quiet.
Locus of Control
the degree to which individuals believe that their actions influence the rewards they receive in life.
the level of task difficulty that a person believes he or she can attain, and is related to the concept of goal-setting.
the amount of confidence one has in one's ability to perform.
the degree to which one's expectations are generalized across many situations or restricted to an isolated instance.
an abstract concept regarding the relationships between people and events that exists because we can operationally define it even though it does have a physical reality.
Ex: Satisfaction, intelligence, commitment, and honesty.
the competencies that allow us to perceive, understand, and regulate emotions in ourselves and others.
the extent to which we actually expect to perform a given act.
the process of interpreting and making sense of our behavior.
the attitudes employees hold regarding factors in their work enviroment, particularly pay and benefits, the characteristics of the job, supervision, fellow workers, and opportunities for advancement.
people so involved in their work that they are addicted to working and unable to pursue other meaningful activities without feeling nervous, anxious, or guilty.
a strong belief in and acceptance of the organization's values and goals.
a strong emotional attachment to the organization and a willingness to exert considerable effort on behalf of it.
Generally affects job performance the most.
a strong desire to maintain membership in the organization.