anatomy ch18

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anatomy ch18
2010-04-06 03:07:14
anatomy ch18

anatomy 226 chapter 18
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  1. what are bloods functions:
    transportation, protection, and maintenance
  2. transportation of:
    oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, ions, and hormones
  3. maintence of:
    temperature, blood pH, fluid and electrolyte balance
  4. protection against:
    forming clots and fighting infection
  5. blood is composed of:
    liquid plasma and formed elements
  6. formed elements include:
    erythrocytes, luekocyte, thrombocytes
  7. avg hematocrit:
    F = 37%-48% M = 45%-52%
  8. pH of blood:
  9. temperature:
    38 degrees C
  10. avg blood vol.
    F = 4-5 L M = 5-6 L
  11. 90% water, 10 % solutes, straw color
  12. ions, hormones, gases, plasma protiens
  13. plasma protiens:
    albumin, globulin, fibrinogen
  14. draws water to it to maintain blood osmolarity and volume; also transports and buffers plasma pH
  15. trasports molecules and antibodies
  16. blood clotting
  17. low protien diet (low blood osmolarity) resulting in edema in tissues and leads to death by dehydration
  18. only ___________ are complete cells of the formed elements
  19. most formed elements survive in the bloodstream for ....
    a few days
  20. most blood cells do not divide but are......
    renewed by cells in bone marrow
  21. primary fcn is oxygen/carbon dioxide trasport
  22. 33% filled with hemoglobin (Hb), a protien that functions in gas transport
  23. normal Hb:
    12-18 g/100 ml blood
  24. _______ of all oxygen in the blood is bound to hemoglobin
  25. hemoglobin is made up of protien _____ that is composed of two two________ chains and two __________ chains, each with a _______ group
    globin, alpha, beta, heme
  26. each heme group has an atom of iron that can bind to_______
    one oxygen molecule
  27. each hemoglobin molecule can transport how many oxygen?
  28. hemoblobin bound to oxygen is
  29. hemoglobin after oxygen diffuses into tissues is
  30. hemoglobin bound to co2 is
  31. hemoglobin bound to carbon monoxide, higher in smokers
  32. contains two alpha and two gama globin molecules; greater affinity for oxygen; gas exchange occurs across placenta
    fetal hemoglobin
  33. RBC production
  34. takes about 4 days, lifespan is about 120 days
  35. occurs in bone marrow, spleen, liver and thymus before birth
  36. hematopoiesis occurs in adult bone marrow of:
    axial skeleton and girdles and proximal head of humerus and femur
  37. give rise to all formed elements
    pluripotent stem cells (hematopoietic stem cells)
  38. erythropoiesis requires ___________ for Hb, ______ for globin synthesis, _____ and ____ for DNA synthesis, ________ and ______ for Hb synthesis
    iron, amino scids, folic acid and vit C, Vit C and copper
  39. _________ is released by the kidneys
    erythropoietin (EPO)
  40. released as a result of hypoxemia due to decrease RBC, decreased oxygen availability, increased tissue demand for oxygen
    erythropoeitin is released by kidneys
  41. enhanced erythropoietin increases:
    RBC count in circulating blood, oxygen carrying ability fo the blood
  42. destruction of RBC
  43. heme and globin are separated and the iron is salvaged for reuse int he liver and spleen; globulins recycled into more protiens
  44. blood has abnormally low oxygen carrying capacity due to low RBCs or low Hb, symptom rather than a disease itself, blood oxygen levels cannot support normal metabolism, signs include: fatigue, paleness, shortness of breath, and chills
  45. result of accute or chronic loss of blood: trauma, hemophilia, mentration, ulcer, ruptured aneurysms, etc.
    hemorrhagic anemia
  46. prematurely ruptured RBC: drugs (tylenol, penicillin), poisining, blood parasites, hemoglobin defects, mismatched blood transfusion
    hemolytic anemia
  47. destruction or inhibition of red bone marrow: viral infections, radiation, drugs, autoimmune disease, ( lupus, pesticides, hepatitis)
    aplastic anemia
  48. hemorrhagic, hemolytic, and aplastic anemia
    anemia from insufficient RBC
  49. iron deficiency and pernicious anemia
    anemia due to decreaed hemoglobin
  50. thalassemia and sickle cell anemia
    anemia due to abnormal hemoglobin
  51. a secondary result of hemorrhagic anemia, inadequate intake of iron- containing foods, impaired iron absorption
    iron deficieny anemia
  52. deficiney of vit B12, lack of intrinsic factor needed for absorption of B12, treatment is intramuscular injections
    pernicious anemia
  53. absent or faulty globin chain in hemoglobin, erythtrocytes are thin, delicate, and deficient in hemoglobin, common in people of mediteranean descent ( greek and hatian)
  54. results from deffective gene coding for an abnormal hemoglobin called hemoglbin S (HbS), RBC become sickle celled in low oxygen situations, common in people of african descent; possibly to avoid malaria disease
    sickle cell anemia
  55. excess RBCs that increase blood viscosity
  56. usually due to bone marrow cancer
    primary polycethemia (polycythemia vera)
  57. caused by dehydration, smoking, air pollution, emphysema, high altitude, or strenous exercise
    secondary polycythemia
  58. replacing previously drawn blood to boost RBC levels in presparation for athletic event
    blood doping
  59. used when blood is substantial, in treating thrombocytopenia (lack of platelets)
    whole blood transfusions
  60. ________ are used to treat anemia
    packed red cells ( cells with plasma removed)
  61. humans have ______ varieties of naturally occuring RBC antigens
  62. Other blood groups (MN, Duffy, Kell, Kidd, and Lewis) are mainly used for
    legalities, paternity test
  63. The ABO blood groups consist of
    two antigens (A and B) and two anti bodies ( anti-A and anti-B)
  64. presence of the Rh antigen on RBCs is indicated
    Rh +
  65. Universal recipeint
  66. universal donor
  67. Rh+ antibodies of a sensitized Rh- mother cross the placenta and attack and destroy the RBCs of an Rh+ baby
    erythroblastosis fetalis (hemolytic disease of newborn)
  68. prevent the Rh- mother from becoming sensitized and is given to mother before birth
    RhoGAM or Gamulin
  69. defense cells (primarily phagocytic)
  70. WBC can leave capillaries via _______ and are directed to sites of infection by ______
    diapedesis, chemotaxis
  71. move through tissue space, not confined to vessel
  72. WBC count of 10,000 per cubic millimeter
  73. lobed nuclei with granules in cytoplasm
  74. simple nucleus without granules
  75. large and short lived, have lobed nuclei, are mostly phagocytic cells, contain cytoplasmic granules that stain specifically (acidic=red, basic=blue, both=purple)
  76. polymorphonuclear, nuclie vary in shape and number of lobes, most common WBC, #1 site of infection, take up both acidic and basic dyes, motile, bodys bacteria slayers, increase with bacterial infection, decrease during viral infection
  77. have red staining, bilobed nuclei, phagocytize cells infected with worms, lessen the severity of allergies by phagocytizeing immune complexes and releasing antihistamines
  78. rarest WBC, have u shaped nuclei with purplish granules, secrete histamine and heparin,
  79. inflammatory chemical that acts as a vasodilator and attracts other WBCs
  80. anticoagulant chemical used in inflammation
  81. includes lymphocytes and monocytes, lack visible granules, have spherical or kidney shaped nuceli
  82. large darkk purple nulcei, found mostly enmeshed in lymphoid tissue, T cells fight viruses and tumor cells, B cells produce antibodies to bind to pathogens
  83. largest leukocytes, leave circulation, enter tissue, and differientiate into macrophages, increases with chronic infection
  84. originate from pluripotent stem cells,
  85. become granulocytes
  86. become monocytes
  87. develop into lymphocytes
  88. low levels of WBC , less than 5,000
  89. cancerous conditions involving WBC, WBc are nto functional, fewer RBC, myeloid or lymphoid based, death is caused by internal hemorrage and overwhelming enfections