# Chem101-Test1.txt

 The flashcards below were created by user dmk5154 on FreezingBlue Flashcards. SI of mass kilogram k SI of length meter m SI of time seconds s SI of amount of substance mole SI of temperature Kelvin K Formula of Farenheit to Celcius: C= F-32 divided by 1.8 (C=(F-32)/1.8) Formula of Celcius to Farenheit: F= 1.8(C) + 32 (F=(1.8C)+32) Formula of Celius to Kelvin: K= C + 273 (C+273=K) Formula for Kelvin to Celcius: C= K - 273 (K-273=C) 10^3g is equivalent to 1 kg 10^3mL is equivalent to 1 L 1cm^3 is = 1mL 1 inch = __ cm 2.54 cm 2.54 cm = 1 inch Density pyramid: Mass (Top)Density / Volume (bottom) We can convert from one system of units to another by a method called _____________________, in which conversion factors are used. dimensional analysis Temperature can be measured on three different scales: ___________, ___________, and __________. WE can readily convert among these scales. Fahrenheit, Celsius, and Kelvin __________ is the amount of matter present in a given volume (mass per unit volume). Density Density = ______ divided by _________ mass divided by volume the ratio of the density of a give liquid to the density of water at 4 degrees Celsius. specific gravity ______: part of a measurement tells us what scale or standard is being used to represent the results of the measurement. units ________ is the amount of three-dimensional space occupied by a substance (1m x 1m x 1m = 1m^3) volume quantity of matter present in an object is _______ mass the numbers recorded in a measurement (all certain numbers, plus the first uncertain number) are called _________. (2.8-2.9 ~2.85) significant figures reducing a number to fewer digits (28.9557) is _____________ rounding off the ________________ is a ratio of the two parts of the statement that relates to two units. conversion factor 2.54 cm = 1 inch . This is an example of an ______________________ equivalence statement Changing from one unit to another via conversion factors (based on the equivalence statements between the units) is often called ________________. dimensional analysis water boils at 212 and freezes at 32 in terms of ________ fahrenheit scale water boils at 100 and freezes at 0 in terms of __________ Celsius scale water boils at 373 and freezes at 273 in terms of ________ Kelvin scale for + and -, the number of significant digits in results = the term with the smallest_______________ number of decimals for x and division, the number of significant digits in results = the term with the smallest ___________________ number of significant digits Density formula = D = M(g) / V (mL) Mega (M) 10^6 10^6 Mega (M) kilo (k) 10^3 10^3 kilo (k) deci (d) 10^-1 10^-1 deci (d) centi (c) 10^-2 10^-2 centi (c) milli (m) 10^-3 10^-3 milli (m) micro (�) 10^-6 10^-6 micro (�) nano (n) 10^-9 10^-9 nano (n) 1,000,000.0000000001 Mega 10^6 1,000 kilo 10^3 0.1 deci 10^-1 0.01 centi 10^-2 0.001 milli 10^-3 0.000001 micro 10^-6 0.000000001 nano 10^-9 Matter can be described in terms of _____ and ______ properties chemical and physical physical properties are characteristics a substance exhibits with _______ No change in composition (no chemical change) chemical properties describe a substances ability to _______________ undergo change to a new substance(s) (chemical change) a ________ has variable composition mixture a ____________ mixture has the same properties throughout homogeneous a ____________ mixture has regions that contain varied properties compared to others heterogeneous _________ are of two types: elements and compounds pure substances wood (varied from tree to tree), wine (varied from batch to batch), coffee (strong, weak, bitter) and deep earth water are examples of____________ mixtures (something that has variable composition) ____________ will always have the same composition and cannot be separated further pure substances pure water, gold, nickel, carbon dioxide, and table salt are all examples of pure substances the difference in boiling points is used in this type of separation distillation purifying oil or water are examples of distillation this separates liquids and solids with a mediation. liquids pass through but solids do not. filtration coffee making is an example of filtration it has mass and it occupies space matter rigid; has a fixed shape and volume (iron bar, ice cube, diamond) solid has a definite volume but takes the shape of its container (gasoline, alcohol, blood, water) liquid has no fixed volume or shape; takes the shape and volume of its container (air, helium, oxygen) gas _____ properties of a substance include odor, color, volume, state (gas, liquid, or solid), density, melting point, and boiling point. physical properties properties, which refer to its ability to form new substances (burning wood, cooking an egg) chemical properties involves a change in the fundamental components of the substance; a given substance changes into a different substance or substances. Chemical changes are called ____________ reactions _________ cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical means. elements (Oxygen, carbon, iron, zinc, aluminum, etc). The atoms of certain elements have special affinities for each other. They bind together in special ways to form ______. (Water, table salt, carbon dioxide, dihydrogen oxide) compounds A _______ can be defined as something that has variable composition (types of wood, wine, natural water, or coffee) that can be separated into pure substances (elements and/or compounds) mixture _____ will always have the same composition; can be either elements or compounds (copper metal, pure water) pure substances A mixture that is the same throughout. Also termed as a solution (coke, gasoline, air, brass) homogeneous mixture While the amounts of compounds and elements may vary in a mixture, if it does not vary in composition from one region to another it is called a ___________. (homogeneous) solution a _________ contains regions that have different properties from those of other regions. (a stream with gravel at the bottom) heterogeneous mixture separate the water from the minerals by boiling, which changes the water to steam (gaseous water) and leaves the minerals behind as solids. If we collect and cool the steam, it condenses to pure water. This separation process is called ___________ distillation pour the mixture onto a mesh, such as a filter paper, which allows the liquid to pass through and leaves the solid behind. this is ________ filtration Ox, Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Na, K, Mg are the top elements found in ___________ the earth O, C, H, N, Ca, P are the top elements found in ___________ humans Cr, Co, I, Mn, Cu are the top ________ in humans trace elements Law __________: A given compound always contains the same proportions (by mass) of the elements (H2O = H2O) Law of constant composition Dalton's Atomic Theory: 1) Elements are made of tiny particles called ________ atoms Dalton's Atomic Theory: 2) All atoms of a given element are __________ identical Dalton's Atomic Theory: 3) The atoms of an element are _________ from those of any other element different Dalton's Atomic Theory: 4) Atoms of one element can combine with atoms of other elements to form ________. A given ______ always has _________ relative numbers and types of atoms. (CO2: 12g C + 32g O2 = 44g) Compound;compound;the same Dalton's Atomic Theory: 5) Atoms are indivisible in chemical processes. Atoms are not created or destroyed in chemical __________. A _________ simply changes the way the atoms are __________. (H2 + Cl2 = 2HCl) Reaction;reaction;grouped together (relative)Mass and charge of an electron: 1g;1- (relative)Mass and charge of a proton: 1836g;1+ (relative)Mass and charge of a neutron: 1839g;NO charge (neu)tron! if a proton is = 1g, then an electron weighs _________ g 1/1836 g atoms with the SAME number of protons, but DIFFERENT number of neutrons are _________ isotopes Atomic mass (A) is equal to ______________ number of protons + number of neutrons = Atomic mass Atomic number (Z) is equal to ____________ the number of PROTONS If an element has lost an electron, it is now ___________ positively charged If an element has gained an electron, it is now __________ negatively charged Periodic table- Group(family) 1A are called ______________ alkalai metals Periodic table- Group(family) 2A are called ______________ alkaline earth metals Periodic table- Group(family) 8A are called _______________ noble gases Periodic table- Group(family) 7A are called _______________ Halogens The elements bordering metals and non-metals are called _________ metaloids (semi-metals) *Except Al & B* If C has A=12 and Z=6, how many neutrons, protons, and electrons are there? neutrons: 6 (A-z) (12 total minus 6 protons)protons: 6 (z)electrons: 6 (Z) electrons are = Z unless + or - Efficient conduction, malleability, ductility, and lustrous appearance are __________ properties of __________ physical properties of metals Halogen elements are highly __________ reactive ______________: molecules made up of two atoms diatomic molecules a charged entity: ___ ion a positive ion: cation a negative ion: anion an ionic compound can't contain only anions or only cations because a compound must have_________________... a net charge of zero When a compound forms between a metal and a non-metal, it can be expected to contain ions. This is called a(n) _________ (MgCl2) ionic compound energy is transmitted from one place to another by light, this is called _______________- electromagnetic radiation the distance between two consecutive wave peaks (represented by greek letter "lambda") Wavelength (measured in m) ____________ indicates how many wave peaks pass a certain point per given time period. (represented by greek symbol "nu"; v) Frequency (measured in s^-1 ; Hz) ________ are different forms of an element (Diamond Vs. Graphite) allotropes the interval between peaks: ___________ period a _________ is an indivisible amount of a substance quantum speed of light / wavelength = __________ frequency Hz The electromagnetic spectrum: visible light is a small spectrum of this ranged at _______-_______ nm 400-700 nm Group/Family charges: Group 1:___ Group 2:____ Group 3:____ ; Group 5: __ Group 6:___ Group 7:___ Group 8:___ Loss of electrons--Group 1: 1+ ,Group 2: 2+ Group 3: 3+; Gain electrons --Group 5: 3- Group 6: 2- Group 7: 1- Group 8: no charge Authordmk5154 ID132531 Card SetChem101-Test1.txt DescriptionChapter 2, 3, 4 & some 11 Updated2012-02-03T02:15:45Z Show Answers