Card Set Information

2012-02-02 21:15:45
psu chem101

Chapter 2, 3, 4 & some 11
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  1. SI of mass
    kilogram k
  2. SI of length
    meter m
  3. SI of time
    seconds s
  4. SI of amount of substance
  5. SI of temperature
    Kelvin K
  6. Formula of Farenheit to Celcius: C=
    F-32 divided by 1.8 (C=(F-32)/1.8)
  7. Formula of Celcius to Farenheit: F=
    1.8(C) + 32 (F=(1.8C)+32)
  8. Formula of Celius to Kelvin: K=
    C + 273 (C+273=K)
  9. Formula for Kelvin to Celcius: C=
    K - 273 (K-273=C)
  10. 10^3g is equivalent to
    1 kg
  11. 10^3mL is equivalent to
    1 L
  12. 1cm^3 is =
  13. 1 inch = __ cm
    2.54 cm
  14. 2.54 cm =
    1 inch
  15. Density pyramid:
    • Mass (Top)
    • Density / Volume (bottom)
  16. We can convert from one system of units to another by a method called _____________________, in which conversion factors are used.
    dimensional analysis
  17. Temperature can be measured on three different scales: ___________, ___________, and __________. WE can readily convert among these scales.
    Fahrenheit, Celsius, and Kelvin
  18. __________ is the amount of matter present in a given volume (mass per unit volume).
  19. Density = ______ divided by _________
    mass divided by volume
  20. the ratio of the density of a give liquid to the density of water at 4 degrees Celsius.
    specific gravity
  21. ______: part of a measurement tells us what scale or standard is being used to represent the results of the measurement.
  22. ________ is the amount of three-dimensional space occupied by a substance (1m x 1m x 1m = 1m^3)
  23. quantity of matter present in an object is _______
  24. the numbers recorded in a measurement (all certain numbers, plus the first uncertain number) are called _________. (2.8-2.9 ~2.85)
    significant figures
  25. reducing a number to fewer digits (28.9557) is _____________
    rounding off
  26. the ________________ is a ratio of the two parts of the statement that relates to two units.
    conversion factor
  27. 2.54 cm = 1 inch . This is an example of an ______________________
    equivalence statement
  28. Changing from one unit to another via conversion factors (based on the equivalence statements between the units) is often called ________________.
    dimensional analysis
  29. water boils at 212 and freezes at 32 in terms of ________
    fahrenheit scale
  30. water boils at 100 and freezes at 0 in terms of __________
    Celsius scale
  31. water boils at 373 and freezes at 273 in terms of ________
    Kelvin scale
  32. for + and -, the number of significant digits in results = the term with the smallest_______________
    number of decimals
  33. for x and division, the number of significant digits in results = the term with the smallest ___________________
    number of significant digits
  34. Density formula =
    D = M(g) / V (mL)
  35. Mega (M)
  36. 10^6
    Mega (M)
  37. kilo (k)
  38. 10^3
    kilo (k)
  39. deci (d)
  40. 10^-1
    deci (d)
  41. centi (c)
  42. 10^-2
    centi (c)
  43. milli (m)
  44. 10^-3
    milli (m)
  45. micro (�)
  46. 10^-6
    micro (�)
  47. nano (n)
  48. 10^-9
    nano (n)
  49. 1,000,000.0000000001
    Mega 10^6
  50. 1,000
    kilo 10^3
  51. 0.1
    deci 10^-1
  52. 0.01
    centi 10^-2
  53. 0.001
    milli 10^-3
  54. 0.000001
    micro 10^-6
  55. 0.000000001
    nano 10^-9
  56. Matter can be described in terms of _____ and ______ properties
    chemical and physical
  57. physical properties are characteristics a substance exhibits with _______
    No change in composition (no chemical change)
  58. chemical properties describe a substances ability to _______________
    undergo change to a new substance(s) (chemical change)
  59. a ________ has variable composition
  60. a ____________ mixture has the same properties throughout
  61. a ____________ mixture has regions that contain varied properties compared to others
  62. _________ are of two types: elements and compounds
    pure substances
  63. wood (varied from tree to tree), wine (varied from batch to batch), coffee (strong, weak, bitter) and deep earth water are examples of____________
    mixtures (something that has variable composition)
  64. ____________ will always have the same composition and cannot be separated further
    pure substances
  65. pure water, gold, nickel, carbon dioxide, and table salt are all examples of
    pure substances
  66. the difference in boiling points is used in this type of separation
  67. purifying oil or water are examples of
  68. this separates liquids and solids with a mediation. liquids pass through but solids do not.
  69. coffee making is an example of
  70. it has mass and it occupies space
  71. rigid; has a fixed shape and volume (iron bar, ice cube, diamond)
  72. has a definite volume but takes the shape of its container (gasoline, alcohol, blood, water)
  73. has no fixed volume or shape; takes the shape and volume of its container (air, helium, oxygen)
  74. _____ properties of a substance include odor, color, volume, state (gas, liquid, or solid), density, melting point, and boiling point.
    physical properties
  75. properties, which refer to its ability to form new substances (burning wood, cooking an egg)
    chemical properties
  76. involves a change in the fundamental components of the substance; a given substance changes into a different substance or substances. Chemical changes are called ____________
  77. _________ cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical means.
    elements (Oxygen, carbon, iron, zinc, aluminum, etc).
  78. The atoms of certain elements have special affinities for each other. They bind together in special ways to form ______. (Water, table salt, carbon dioxide, dihydrogen oxide)
  79. A _______ can be defined as something that has variable composition (types of wood, wine, natural water, or coffee) that can be separated into pure substances (elements and/or compounds)
  80. _____ will always have the same composition; can be either elements or compounds (copper metal, pure water)
    pure substances
  81. A mixture that is the same throughout. Also termed as a solution (coke, gasoline, air, brass)
    homogeneous mixture
  82. While the amounts of compounds and elements may vary in a mixture, if it does not vary in composition from one region to another it is called a ___________. (homogeneous)
  83. a _________ contains regions that have different properties from those of other regions. (a stream with gravel at the bottom)
    heterogeneous mixture
  84. separate the water from the minerals by boiling, which changes the water to steam (gaseous water) and leaves the minerals behind as solids. If we collect and cool the steam, it condenses to pure water. This separation process is called ___________
  85. pour the mixture onto a mesh, such as a filter paper, which allows the liquid to pass through and leaves the solid behind. this is ________
  86. Ox, Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Na, K, Mg are the top elements found in ___________
    the earth
  87. O, C, H, N, Ca, P are the top elements found in ___________
  88. Cr, Co, I, Mn, Cu are the top ________ in humans
    trace elements
  89. Law __________: A given compound always contains the same proportions (by mass) of the elements (H2O = H2O)
    Law of constant composition
  90. Dalton's Atomic Theory: 1) Elements are made of tiny particles called ________
  91. Dalton's Atomic Theory: 2) All atoms of a given element are __________
  92. Dalton's Atomic Theory: 3) The atoms of an element are _________ from those of any other element
  93. Dalton's Atomic Theory: 4) Atoms of one element can combine with atoms of other elements to form ________. A given ______ always has _________ relative numbers and types of atoms. (CO2: 12g C + 32g O2 = 44g)
    • Compound;
    • compound;
    • the same
  94. Dalton's Atomic Theory: 5) Atoms are indivisible in chemical processes. Atoms are not created or destroyed in chemical __________. A _________ simply changes the way the atoms are __________. (H2 + Cl2 = 2HCl)
    • Reaction;
    • reaction;
    • grouped together
  95. (relative)Mass and charge of an electron:
    • 1g;
    • 1-
  96. (relative)Mass and charge of a proton:
    • 1836g;
    • 1+
  97. (relative)Mass and charge of a neutron:
    • 1839g;
    • NO charge (neu)tron!
  98. if a proton is = 1g, then an electron weighs _________ g
    1/1836 g
  99. atoms with the SAME number of protons, but DIFFERENT number of neutrons are _________
  100. Atomic mass (A) is equal to ______________
    number of protons + number of neutrons = Atomic mass
  101. Atomic number (Z) is equal to ____________
    the number of PROTONS
  102. If an element has lost an electron, it is now ___________
    positively charged
  103. If an element has gained an electron, it is now __________
    negatively charged
  104. Periodic table- Group(family) 1A are called ______________
    alkalai metals
  105. Periodic table- Group(family) 2A are called ______________
    alkaline earth metals
  106. Periodic table- Group(family) 8A are called _______________
    noble gases
  107. Periodic table- Group(family) 7A are called _______________
  108. The elements bordering metals and non-metals are called _________
    metaloids (semi-metals) *Except Al & B*
  109. If C has A=12 and Z=6, how many neutrons, protons, and electrons are there?
    • neutrons: 6 (A-z) (12 total minus 6 protons)
    • protons: 6 (z)
    • electrons: 6 (Z) electrons are = Z unless + or -
  110. Efficient conduction, malleability, ductility, and lustrous appearance are __________ properties of __________
    physical properties of metals
  111. Halogen elements are highly __________
  112. ______________: molecules made up of two atoms
    diatomic molecules
  113. a charged entity: ___
  114. a positive ion:
  115. a negative ion:
  116. an ionic compound can't contain only anions or only cations because a compound must have_________________...
    a net charge of zero
  117. When a compound forms between a metal and a non-metal, it can be expected to contain ions. This is called a(n) _________ (MgCl2)
    ionic compound
  118. energy is transmitted from one place to another by light, this is called _______________-
    electromagnetic radiation
  119. the distance between two consecutive wave peaks (represented by greek letter "lambda")
    Wavelength (measured in m)
  120. ____________ indicates how many wave peaks pass a certain point per given time period. (represented by greek symbol "nu"; v)
    Frequency (measured in s^-1 ; Hz)
  121. ________ are different forms of an element (Diamond Vs. Graphite)
  122. the interval between peaks: ___________
  123. a _________ is an indivisible amount of a substance
  124. speed of light / wavelength = __________
    frequency Hz
  125. The electromagnetic spectrum: visible light is a small spectrum of this ranged at _______-_______ nm
    400-700 nm
  126. Group/Family charges: Group 1:___ Group 2:____ Group 3:____ ;
    Group 5: __ Group 6:___ Group 7:___ Group 8:___
    • Loss of electrons--
    • Group 1: 1+ ,Group 2: 2+ Group 3: 3+;
    • Gain electrons --
    • Group 5: 3- Group 6: 2- Group 7: 1- Group 8: no charge