Acid-Base Imbalances Jeopardy

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Author:
jdieken22
ID:
132592
Filename:
Acid-Base Imbalances Jeopardy
Updated:
2012-02-03 01:38:57
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acid base imbalance pathophysiology
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Jeopardy questions for Acid-Base Imbalances in Pathophysiology
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  1. How are the lungs used as a buffer in the bicarbonate/carbonic acid system?
    Carbonic acid (H2CO3) is exhaled in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O).
  2. What are causes of metabolic acidosis?
    Tissue anoxia, starvation, aspirin overdose, or prolonged diarrhea.
  3. What are causes of metabolic alkalosis?
    Vomiting or gastric suction, hypokalemia, or excessive intake of antacids
  4. What are clinical manifestations of metabolic alkalosis
    Shallow respirations, weakness, muscle cramps, hyperreflexia, & atrial tachycardia
  5. What are clinical manifestations of metabolic acidosis?
    Lethargy; ↓ level of consciousness; deep, rapid respirations; &, dysrhythmias
  6. How are the kidneys used as a buffer in the bicarbonate/carbonic acid system?
    Kidneys compensate in alkalosis by excreting bicarbonate (HCO3) and in acidosis by retaining HCO3.
  7. How are the kidneys used as a buffer in the renal buffering system?
    Hydrogen ions (H+ ) are excreted in the form of NaH2PO4
  8. What is an example of arterial blood gas that represents metabolic acidosis?
    • pH 7.30
    • PaCO2 38 mm Hg
    • HCO3 18 mEq/L
  9. What is an example of arterial blood gas that represents metabolic alkalosis?
    • pH 7.25
    • PaCO2 40 mm Hg
    • HCO3 30 mEq/L
  10. What are causes of respiratory alkalosis?
    Hyperventilation such as in an anxiety attack
  11. What are causes of respiratory acidosis?
    Airway obstruction, impaired alveolar gas exchange such as pneumonia, or neuromuscular dysfunction affecting muscles of respiration
  12. How is the protein buffer system used to compensate for acidosis?
    Hydrogen ions(H+ ) form HHb and carbon dioxide forms HbCO2
  13. How is the cellular ion exchange buffer system used to compensate for acidosis? OR How does acidosis contribute to hyperkalemia?
    In acidosis, hydrogen ions (H+ )shift from the blood to the cell in exchange for potassium (K+)
  14. What are clinical manifestations of respiratory acidosis?
    Headache, restlessness, lethargy, coma, & muscle twitching leading to seizures
  15. What are clinical manifestations of respiratory alkalosis?
    Circumoral paresthesia lightheadedness, & seizures
  16. What is an example of arterial blood gas that represents respiratory alkalosis?
    • pH 7. 22
    • PaCO2 30 mm Hg
    • HCO3 22 mEq/L
  17. What is an example of arterial blood gas that represents respiratory acidosis?
    • pH 7. 18
    • PaCO2 50 mm Hg
    • HCO3 24 mEq/L
  18. How and at what speed do lungs compensate in acid-base imbalances? OR What is a compensation for metabolic acidosis or alkalosis?
    Act in minutes to exhale or retain carbon dioxide
  19. How and at what speed do kidneys compensate in acid-base imbalances? OR What is a compensation for respiratory acidosis or alkalosis?
    Act in hours to days to retain or excrete HCO3 or H+
  20. How can you tell by the arterial blood gas when compensation has occurred?
    The pH changes from abnormal to normal
  21. Referring to (Shallow respirations, weakness, muscle cramps, hyperreflexia, & atrial tachycardia) what causes the muscle cramps and hyper-reflexia in alkalosis?
    Indicates a calcium deficit because calcium becomes bound in alkalosis

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