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  1. Define the term false fruit
    A plant structure that resembles a fruit but is not derived from a flower or flowers
  2. State TWO characteristics of insect pollinated plants
    • 1.Flowers are usually large, brightly-colored and scented to attract
    • insects. If the flowers are small they may group together to form
    • conspicuous inflorescences.
    • 2.Nectar is often present to attract insects.
    • 3.Pollen is fairly abundant. Pollen grains are large sticky and heavy, usually with rough surfaces so that they can readily cling onto the insects bodies.
    • 4.Stamens may not be pendulous.
    • 5.Stigmas are usually not feathery and do no protrude. They are sticky
    • so that pollen grains settling on them are not easily displaced.
    • 6.Nectar guides may be seen on the petals.
  3. Define the term hybrid vigour with reference to F1 hybrid seeds
    • the result of genetic breeding where the dominant genes from one parent plant are used to suppress the undesirable recessive genes of the second parent plant.
    • The resulting seedlings will be larger and stronger than either of the
    • parents as well as generally showing better disease resistance.
  4. Define the term tepals in a NAMED genus
    • Tepals are elements of the perianth, or outer part of a flower, which include the petals or sepals.
    • The term tepal is more often applied specifically when all segments of
    • the perianth are of similar shape and color, or undifferentiated, which
    • is called perigone.
  5. Define anther AND stigma
    • The
    • Anthers contain pollen sacs. The sacs release pollen on to the outside
    • of the anthers that brush against insects on entering the flowers. The
    • pollen once deposited on the insect is transferred to the stigma of another
    • flower or the same flower. The ovule is then able to be fertilised
    • The stigma Is
    • covered in a sticky substance that the pollen grains will adhere to.
  6. Describe the process of Osmosis
    the tendency of a fluid, usually water, to pass through a semipermeable membrane into a solution where the solvent concentration is higher, thus equalizing the concentrations of materials on either side of the membrane.
  7. Define the term "secondary thickening"
    • The growth in width of stems and roots in
    • plants, resulting in more thicker, sturdier tissues that can support the
    • growing plant.
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