Patho II-Test #1

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Patho II-Test #1
2012-02-03 14:20:04

Overview & Anatomy
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  1. Describe Entire Ciculatory Path of Blood Flow
    Venae Cavae-->[Heart]-R. Atrium-->R. Ventricle-->Pulmonary Artery-->[Lungs]-Arteries-->Arterioles-->Capillaries-->Venules-->Veines-->Pulmonary Veins-->[Heart]-L. Atrium-->L. Ventricle-->Aorta-->[Each Organ]-Arteries-->Arterioles-->Capillaries-->Venules-->Veins-->Venae Cavae
  2. Describe in Detail Principles Governing Blood Flow (ml/min), Pressure (force/unit area), & Resistance (opposition of fluid movement) (Poiseulle's Law)
    • Flow depends on generating enough Pressure to overcome resistance
    • Pressure measures Force of Blood exerted against Vessel Wall
    • LV must have the highest pressue to get blood throughout the whole body
    • small change in radius can cause large change in flow
    • Blood Viscosity & Vessel Length stay about the same
    • Flow=(P1-P2)/R [P1:Aortic (Arterial) &P2:Venae Cavae (R. Atrium)]
  3. Mean Arterial Pressure
    average blood pressure during a single cardiac cycle
  4. Cardiac Output
    Entire Flow through the Circulatory System @ any given Time
  5. Total Peripheral Resistance
    Entire Systemic Circuit Resistance=TPR
  6. What's the Most Important Equations you will learn in Cardiovascular Physiology/Pharmacology?
  7. Components & Histological Features of Pericardium
    • Double-Walled sac that contains the heart & the roots of the great vessels
    • Outer: Fibrous Pericardium & Inner: Serous Pericardium (has 2 layers itself)
    • Parietal Pericardium, which is fused to & inseparable from the Fibrous Pericardium &
    • Visceral Pericardium, which is part of the Epicardium
    • Epicardium is the layer immediately outside of the heart muscle proper (Myocardium)
  8. Functions & Properties of the Major Coronary Arteries & Veins
    • Openings for L & R Coronary Arteries @ Base of Aorta
    • When Aortic SemiLunar valve Opens, Leaflets cover up Openings of CA
    • Once Closed, Blood w/i Aorta wil "back-fill" CA
    • CV drain into CSinus, which empties directly into RA
  9. Anastomoses
    Branches off the L & R CAs fuse together
  10. Components of Heart Wall
    • Pericardium (visceral pericarium)
    • Myocardium (contains Cardiac Muscle, Fibroblasts, BV, & Nerves. Organized into Concentric Rings)
    • Endocardium (covers Inner Surface of H. Made of Endothelium that's Contiunuous w/ Endothelium of Great Vessels)
  11. Internal Structures of the Heart (include: Heart Valves, Trabeculae Carneae, Papillary Muscle, & Chordae Tendineae)
    • Atrioventricular Valves (located b/t A & V) [R: Tricuspid, L:Bicuspid or Mitral Valve]
    • Open until Ventricular Pressure Exceeds Atrial
    • Aortic SLV:opens when LV Pressure exceed Aortic Pressure
    • Pulmonary Semilunar Valve Opens when RV pressure exceed Pulmonary Trunk Pressure
  12. Mitral Valve Stenosis (hardening, narrowing)
    • Causes Restriction of Flow from 1 Chamber to the Next
    • Flow from LA-->LV is Hindered
    • Can lead to Regurgitation
  13. Mitral (Bicuspid) Valve Regurgitation
    • Valve Leaflets fail to Close Completely
    • Blood's allowed to flow Backward (even though valve should be closed)
    • During LV Contraction, Blood's Ejected back into LA
  14. Pulmonary Valve Stenosis
    • Outflow of blood from the RV of the heart is obstructed at the level of the pulmonic valve
    • Reduction of flow of blood to the lungs
  15. Aortic Valve Stenosis
    • Similar to Mitral Valve Stenosis
    • Orifice (opening) of Valve b/c Narrowed
    • Restricts flow from LV-->Aorta
  16. Aortic Valve Insufficiency (Aortic Regurgitation)
    Leaking of the Aortic Valve of the heart that causes blood to flow in the reverse direction during Ventricular Diastole, from the Aorta into the LV
  17. Cardiac Conduction System & Properties of Each Component of the System
  18. SA Nodal AP & How it's Affected by SNS or PNS Stimulation or Drug Exposure (given MoA of Drug)
  19. Cardiac Myocyte AP & How it's Affected by Certain Drugs given their MoA (ex. Sotalol)
  20. How IC Ca2+ is Regulated in Cardiac Myocyte
  21. Inter-Relationship b/t Na/Ca Exchanger & Na/K ATP-ase Pump, & How this Relationship can be Exploited Therapeutically