American Literature Timeline

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kirb6428
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132659
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American Literature Timeline
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2012-02-25 13:17:56
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American Literature Timeline
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The Colonial Americas to the Age of Bradford to the Age of Frost
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  1. What was the first age within American Literature?
    Literature relating to America includes Iroquois Creation Story, anasazi, and other indigenous people tha orally past down stories and therefore have no date. There are also letters from christoper columbus to Luis de santaangel Regarding the First Voyage to America and dates back to February 15, 1493.

    • But the first recgonized time period in literary history was the The Age of Bradford, which was based on William Bradford
  2. Who is Diego Colon and what is his importance to the early colonial Americas?
    • Diego Colon- named after the son of Columbus himself. Colon was the Spanish version of Columbus name. Was captured in 1492 and told about the trip in 1494. Knew Columbus and retold the mariner’s own last account of the second voyage. OLD WORLD MEETS NEW WORLD.
    • -(1250AD) Taino Indians arrived in Cuba
    • -(1492) Christopher Columbus discovered Cuba, claimed for Spain
    • -(1511) Diego Colon settled cubaCuba
  3. What were some of the early voyages? Look at the map below.



    Columbus-Caribbean basin

    Cabot-mout of the saint Lawrence in Canada

    Vepucci-amazon

    w/n 50 years of 1492 the east coasts of much of both continents had been explored
  4. What is the Encomienda system?
    spain introducded African slavery into Hispaniola as early as 1501. Encomienda system is how the Spanish took over partly by spreading disease and this became a type of virtural enslavement. By the middle of the 16thc the native people had been so completely displaced by the African slaves that the Spanish historian called the island of Cuba, “an effigy(A rough model of a particular person, damaged or destroyed as a protest or expression of anger.) or an image of Ethiopia itself” Thus the encomienda system allowed the destruction of the taino Indian tribe or one people which was accompanied by the displacement and enslavement of another (the Africans).
  5. What were some of the characteristics of Native American Oral Culture?
    • Native
    • American Oral literature in the Bradford
    • Age:

    • -native American ppl spoke 110’s of languages belonging to entirely different linguistic families (e.g., Athapasan, Uto-Aztecan, Chinookan, Souan, Algonguian)
    • -each linguistic family/tribe had diverse forms
    • - Among North American ppls alone, 8 different types of creation stories have been catalogued, which is very different from Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
    • - North of what is now Mexico, Native American did not use a written alphabet. Theirs were oral cultures, relying on the spoken word whether chanted, sung, or presented in lengthy narratives.
    • -The phrase oral lit might appear to be a contradiction in terms of some have chosen to call the expression of oral
    • tradition (orature)
    • - From a western perspective, however, the types of NA verbal expression could be considered as literature only after
    • the 18th & early-19thc.
    • - The revolution of European consciousness, aka, Romanticism- where literature shifted away from being
    • defined by the medium of expression (all languages preserved in letters) to the kinds of expression (those texts that emphasized the imaginative and emotional
    • poassibilites of language). Once this shift in literature occurred Native American verbal orature became literature.

  6. How does David Abram- The Spell of the Sensuous relate to Native Americans
    • The book draws us into a remarkable series of investigations regarding the fluid, participatory nature of perception, and the reciprocity between our senses and the sensuous earth. The book unfolds into an exploration of language, and of the power our words have to enhance or to stifle the spontaneous life of the senses. Contrasting the spoken stories of diverse indigenous oral cultures with ways of speaking common to literate civilization, The Spell of the Sensuous reveals the profound impact that the alphabet has had upon the human experiences of time, of space, of earthly place.)
  7. By 1492 in The European society that Columbus left behind ___________ had just happened or was happening.
    • - a number of nation-states with largely agricultural economy
    • - Europeans spoke two or three dozen languages – most were closely related
    • - Christian in religious belief
    • - Their entire worldview included some
    • contact w/ Judaism and Islam
    • - a written alphabet
    • -Gutenberg’s printing press (finished in 1440) w/ moveable type had provided a mechanical means to writing (by 1492
    • Europe was on its way to becoming a print culture)
  8. What were some consequences of the old world entering a new world?
    • -split between policy and action. At the heart of the infant Atlantic world of the 16th century that was a cornerstone of this period
    • - the great distance separating the hemispheres
    • made the coordination of intentions and performance very difficult. If writing served in a fluid; ambiguous universe as a means to influence policy at home, it also merged as a means of justifying actions (as Coretes who sought to justify his patently illegal invasion of Mexico. He wrote several letters to Charles the V defending his actions’
    • - Briefs, manuscripts, letters
    • -Allowed for literature as witness (not all lit worked as witness. This pertains to issues of policy.

    • Native Americans saw-
    • -colonial imitation of Europe developing before
    • their eyes, complete with fortresses, churches, houses,
    • - new foods
    • - the process of influence and exchange produced the hybrid cultural universe the of the Atlantic world
  9. What did their position as pioneers ( columbus, cortes, john smith, and Diaz del Castillo) have to do with their writing?
    • Diaz del Castillo, Chronicles of Cortes, and accounts by John Smith- all came from underclass, but the opportunities represented by the America’s allowed their writing to be subversive, even mutinous, achieving it’s great depth when it
    • captured a vision of American as not just a dependent province of the old world, but a place where much that could genuinely be learned

    Columbus wrote a point-by-point description of his second voyage in 1495 that was addressed to Ferdinand and Isabella in a series of items to which the specific responses were added to the court scribes.
  10. Fun Facts about the Early Colonial Americas
    • Fun Fact*
    • - The term literature comes from Latin littera, which means “letter.”
    • o In 1492 European’s could name the tragedy, comedy, epic, ode, and a variety of Lyric forms of poetry.
    • o Special typography and layout where type size and page design attempt to present analogs for the eyes of what the ear would have heard. A “performable text.” But others argue that the verbal can never be displayed on the page.
    • * the Scandinavian settlers along with French, Portuguese, Irish, Scots, and Germans lived in New Netherland and it’s capital- New Amsterdam was conquered by the English in 1664 and renamed New York.
  11. How Long was The Age of Bradford?
    The Age of Bradford lasted from 1600-1700 B.C.E.

    But the first recgonized time period in literary history was the The Age of Bradford, which was based on William Bradford

  12. What were the main differences between Pilgrims and Puritians. What did 1620 bring to North America?
    1620 brought to North America a new kind of Englishsettler-

    Named by their leader and historian WilliamBradford- They wish to purify Christian belief andpractice (the puritans)

    Differences between the Pilgrism and Puritans:

    • -Puritans were initially willing to work withinthe confines of they established church of England whereas the pilgrims thoughtthe church of england to be so corrupt that they wished to separate themselvesfrom it completely- Inengland
    • -the pilgrims had a secrete congregation in the village of Scrooby,Nottinhamshire) (dooby do) and called themselves the scrooby separatist - In 1608, five years after Queen Elizabeth wassucceeded by she was succeeded by the Protestant James VIof Scotland, the son of Mary, Queen of Scots& the scrubby congreagationsettled in Netherlands. They Later petitioned right to settle in American;backed by English investors the trip was commercial as well as religious innature.


    • Pilgrims
    • Landed in Massachusettes shore on Nove 1620 and
    • prepared for winter- made it with the help of the wanpanoag Indians


    • Puritans
    • -
    • Set out on a larger, well-financed boat w/ John
    • Winthrop to Massachusetts Bay not far from Plymouth (never intended to separate
    • with the church of England like the pilgrims)
  13. Who are Some Key Authors/ Texts from the Bradeford Age?
    John Smith: True Relation (1608) or General History (1624): Pocahontas' rescue from Pohatan

    • William Bradford: History of Plymouth Plantation (1630-51): "It pleased God to..."
    • William Bradford's book Of Plymouth Plantation is written in epistolary form, which is borderline journalining- based on novel. Shortly after arriving at Plymoutn, Massachusetts, in 1620, Bradford was elected govenor.- he describes the signing of the Mayflower Compact.

    John Winthrop: The History of New England from 1630 to 1649 (1825, 25).

    Anne Bradstreet poems: "The Author to Her Book," "Here Follow Some Verses upon the Burning of Our House" (1678).

    • Edward Taylor (1642-1729) was a New England Puritan. He was born in Leicestershire and became a school teacher with Puritan sympathies. After the Great Ejection, Taylor left
    • England, studied divinity at Harvard, and eventually became minister of Westfield, Massachusetts.

    Major Works:

    • Gods Determinations
    • Touching His Effect
    • Occasional Meditations
    • Prepatory Meditations
    • Before My Appraoch to the Lords Supper
    • A Valediction to all
    • the World

    • He carried on a long-running controversy with Solomon Stoddard over the Lord's Supper, Taylor taking the
    • position later held by Edwards. Donald Stanford says, "Taylor seems to have been endowed with most of those qualities usually connoted by the word puritan. He was learned, grave, severe, stubborn, and stiff-necked. He was very, very pious. But his piety was sincere. It was fed by a long continuous spiritual experience arising, so he felt, from a mystical communion with Christ. The reality and depth of this
    • experience is amply witnessed by his poetry."

    • A perusal of his poetry shows that Taylor was a
    • thorough going Calvinist. It was his custom to write a poem ("Meditation") before each Lord's Supper. They are wonderful examples of spiritual experience and devotion.

    • -Cotton Mather- (February 12,
    • 1663 – February 13, 1728) --
    • was a socially and politically influential New England Puritan minister, prolific author and pamphleteer;

    - remembered for his role in theSalem witch trials

    - Cotton Mather wrote more than 450 books and pamphlets, and his ubiquitous literary works made him one of the most influential religious leaders in America.

    • - Mather set the moral tone in the colonies, and sounded the call for second- and third-generation Puritans, whose parents had left England for the New England colonies of North America, to return to the theological roots of Puritanism.
  14. What was Cotton Mather's most important work and why?
    • - The most important of these, Magnalia
    • Christi Americana (1702),

    • o comprises seven distinct books, many of which depict biographical and historical narratives – reminds readers
    • that America in the 1700 was opening outward- colonist was altered by the drive towards cross-cultural interactions

    • o American writers, such as Nathaniel Hawthorne,Elizabeth
    • Drew Stoddard, and Harriet Beecher Stowe, would look in describing the cultural significance of New England for later generations after the American Revolution.

    o Mather's text thus is one of the more important documents in American history, because it reflects a particular tradition of seeing and understanding the significance of place.

    • o Mather, as a Puritan thinker and social conservative, drew on the language of the Bible to speak to contemporary
    • audiences. Mather's review of the American experiment sought to explain signs of his time and the types of individuals drawn to the colonies as predicting the success of the venture.

    o From his religious training, Mather viewed the importance of texts for elaborating meaning and for bridging different moments of history—linking, for instance, the Biblical stories of Noah and Abraham with the arrival of such eminent leaders as John Eliot; John Winthrop; and his own father, Increase Mather.

  15. What does writing in toungues have to do with the linguistic diversity of the colonial world?
    • Older settlements than New England were: Saint Augstine, Jamestown, Santa Fe, Albany, New York- all of
    • these settlements are older than Boston.

    - English was not the only text in which early North American texts were written.

    - The nations diverse tongues were due to:

    oLarge initial immigration to Boston in the 1630s

    o The high articulation of puritan cultural ideals

    o The early establishment of a college and printing press in Cambridge gave new England a substantial edge

    o Before 1700 other languages remained actively in use not only for mundane purposes but also as expressive vehicles.

    o Printing was established in the American colonies before it was allowed in most of England.

    o Until 1693, England had confined printing to four locations: London, York, Oxford & Cambridge

    o 250 works total were published by the end of the 17thc.

    o Indian nations vs. colonial powers vs. Self-regarding aspect of Puritans vs. diverse tongues.

    o Religion is a dominant theme in the American press of 1700’s & was linked to strong social issues- Salem Witch Trials

    • o One of the earliest Anti-slavery works was The
    • Selling of Joseph written by Samuel Sewell- will have great importance to future America

    o Almanacs- made Benjamin Franklins fortune as a printer and I was Franklin who converted the everday form into a vehicle of rare wit and sturdy English

    o Governmental publications.
  16. What are some Key Forms/ Genres of the Age of Bradford?
    Captivity Narrative (e.g., Mary Rowlandson [1676]).

    Puritan Plain Style

    Journal
  17. What is a captivity narrative?
    Captivity narratives are stories of people captured by enemies they consider "uncivilized." The reliable captivity narratives are based on journals that the authors wrote while in captivity, many of which were unpublished during the author's lifetime.

    Because of the competition between New France and New England in North America, colonists in New England were frequently taken captive by Canadiens and their Indian allies. (Similarly, the New Englanders and their Indian allies also took Canadians and Indian prisoners captive.) According to Kathryn Derounian-Stodola, statistics on the number of captives taken from the fifteenth through the nineteenth centuries are imprecise and unreliable, since record-keeping was not consistent and the fate of hostages who disappeared or died was often not known.[1] Yet conservative estimates run into the tens of thousands, and a more realistic figure may well be higher. For some statistical perspective, however, between King Phillip's War (1675) and the last of the French and Indian Wars (1763), approximately 1,641 New Englanders were taken hostage.[2] During the decades-long struggle between whites and Plains Indians in the mid-nineteenth century, hundreds of women and children were captured[3].Many narratives included a theme of redemption by faith in the face of the threats and temptations of an alien way of life. Barbary captivity narratives, accounts of English people captured and held by Barbary pirates, were popular in England in the 16th and 17th centuries. The first Barbary captivity narrative by a resident of North America was that of Abraham Browne (1655). The most popular was that of Captain James Riley, entitled An Authentic Narrative of the Loss of the Brig Commerce (1817).[citation needed]Ann Eliza Bleecker's epistolary novel, The History of Maria Kittle (1793), is considered the first known Captivity novel. It set the form for subsequent Indian Capture novels.[4]Historians treat many of the popularized captivity narratives with caution, regarding them more as folklore or ideology than historical accounts. But, contemporary historians such as Linda Colley and anthropologists such as Pauline Turner Strong have found the narratives useful in analyzing how the colonists constructed the "other", as well as what the narratives reveal about the settlers' sense of themselves and their culture, and the experience of crossing the line to another.

    merican Indian captivity narratives, accounts of men and women of European descent who were captured by Native Americans, were popular in both America and Europe from the 17th century until the close of the United States frontier late in the 19th century. Mary Rowlandson's memoirA Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson is a classic example of the genre: A Narraitive of the Captivity and REstoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson is written as a narrative- “system of stories.” That means that narratives are composed of multiple stories that relate to one another.

    (Jonathan Dickinson's Journal, God's Protecting Providence ... (1699), an account by a Quaker of shipwreck survivors captured by Indians in Florida, has been described by theCambridge History of English and American Literature as "in many respects the best of all the captivity tracts."[5])American captivity narratives were usually based on true events, but they frequently contained fictional elements as well.
  18. What is Puritan Plain Style?
    The plain style is the simplest of the three classical forms of style. In choosing the plain style, Puritan writers eschewed features common to the rhetoric of the day; they declined to stuff their sermons with the rhetorical flourishes and learned quotations of the metaphysical style of sermon, believing that to be the province of Archbishop Laud and his followers. The Puritan sermon traditionally comprised three parts: doctrine, reasons, and uses. According to Perry Miller in The New England Mind,
  19. What is Puritan Journaling and why did Puritan's write
    Literate and thoughtful, they were given to journaling and then vocalizing those thoughts when they assembled, resulting in a prayerful genre of literature that was spiritual and lyrical. Based on the epistolary style influence from the restoration period of England.
  20. Key Hiestoric Events/ People/ Dates of the literary age of Bradford
    Roanoke (1758, John White returns in 1590).

    Jamestown was settled (1607)

    Mayflower (1620)- Contrary to popular belief, the Mayflower did not land at Plymouth Rock; it landed in what is now Virginia, possibly at Cape Cod. The Puritans (pilgrims) only established a colony at Plymouth.

    Anne Hutchinson banished (1638) - Anne Hutchinson embraced the idea that salvation came about only when God granted it; she believed that human will and action played no role in salvation.Her unorthodox views did not end there. She suggested that an individual could know God's will directly, and that some people received revelation directly from God. This threatened the ministers' role as interpreters of the Bible. As Hutchinson's following grew, the magistrates decided that she was a dangerous woman who must be stopped. They charged her with sedition for undermining the authority of the ministers and heresy for expressing religious beliefs at odds with those of the colony's religious leaders.Her trial was extraordinary. Much of the testimony concerned the "crime" she had committed by daring, as a woman, to speak and teach men in public. Governor John Winthropcondemned her meetings as a "thing not tolerable nor comely in the sight of God, nor fitting for your sex." He conducted much of the initial examination himself.

    Salem Witch Trials (1692)
  21. Key ideas composing world view in the litearary age of Bradford? -Four Parts
    Puritanism:

    predestination (providence)

    the elect

    natural depravity

    typology
  22. What is predestination (providence)?
    predestination (providence),- Several beliefs differentiated Puritans from other Christians. The first was their belief in predestination. Puritans believed that belief in Jesus and participation in the sacraments could not alone effect one's salvation; one cannot choose salvation, for that is the privilege of God alone. All features of salvation are determined by God's sovereignty, including choosing those who will be saved and those who will receive God's irresistible grace. The Puritans distinguished between "justification," or the gift of God's grace given to the elect, and "sanctification," the holy behavior that supposedly resulted when an individual had been saved; according to The English Literatures of America, "Sanctification is evidence of salvation, but does not cause it" (434)
  23. What is the elect?
    While Bradford was with the Pilgrims, John Winthrop with the well-financed effort that brought a contingent of PUritan to Massachusets Bay in 1630. Although the settlers initally expressed no overt intention to sever their ties with the Church of England, and are generally regarded a snonseparating dissenters, the distance they put between themselves and church hierarchy was eloquent testimoney of a different purpose. One other issues, they sharded with the Pilgrism the same basic beliefs: both agreed with Martin Luther that no pope or bishop had a right ot impose any law on a Christian without consent and both accepted John Calvin's view that God freely chose (or "elected") those he would save and those he would damn eternally.

    God chose, before one's birth, those whom he wished to save; but it does not follow that PUritan considered most of use to be born damned.

    • Calvinist doctrine of elections: Puritans and
    • Pilgrims has several of the same beliefs

    • -
    • Both agree w/ Martin Luther that no pope or
    • bishop has a right to impose any law on a Christian without the consent and both accepted john Calvin’s view that god freely chose or “elected” those he would save and those he would damn eternally.
  24. What is covenant theology? Contrast the “Covenant of Works” and “Covenant of Grace.” In what ways did covenant theology have a significant impact upon American colonial Church and society (give several examples)?
    • Covenant of works- the promise god made to Adam that he
    • was immortal and could live in paradise as long as he obeyed god’s commandments, when he disobeyed and ate of the tree of knowledge of good and evil; thereby, Adam brought sin into the world.

    • Covenant of Grace- a agreement that Christ made with all
    • people who believed in hime and that he was sealed with his crucificion, promising them eternal life. Puritians addressed themselves not to the hopelessly, they addressed loving and distinguished between historical or rational understanding and heartfelt “saving” faith
    • - They meditated on Christ’s reforming power
    • -
    • Covenant theology is the idea that God enters into a covenant or contract with mankind. It is seen in the Old Testament when God made a covenant with Abraham that he would bless him if Abraham followed God and walked before him.
    • - In 1588 C.E. when the Spanish Armada was defeated, the British felt that God was fighting for them
    • and that somehow they were God’s chosen people.
    • - The Puritans in England took this thought even further in the 17th century, feeling that they were the remnant of the "pure". They were very much in line with
    • William Tyndale’s view of contractual covenant with God.
    • - Covenant theology had a large role in the development of early colonial America and lasting ramifications after that time. When the Pilgrims and other puritans came to
    • America, they felt very strongly that they were in a covenant with God in the new world.
    • - They believed in the ‘Covenant of Grace’ and the ‘Covenant of Works’. The ‘Covenant of Grace’ was a
    • covenant that God made with unbelievers. All that God required from humans was faith, and in return he gave them salvation. However, once a person was saved,
    • the way that he maintained God’s blessing was by obedience. This explains the ‘Covenant of Works’, which applied to all believers; God’s continued blessing
    • was contingent upon a believer’s obedience to God.
    • - Not only were the American Puritans in covenant with God, they also were in covenant with one another. God’s blessing was not just based upon a single person’s obedience, but was based on the obedience of the whole community.
    • - The implications of this kind of thinking were far reaching. They became very legalistic and believed in living an outwardly religious life. Even if they sinned in secret, they were being watched by other members of the community and therefore had to outwardly be moral, righteous, and upstanding.
    • - They were so concerned about keeping God’s blessing in the hostile new world; they felt that if God withdrew his blessing, they would loose this land. Since this blessing was
    • contingent upon the obedience of the whole community this led to the ‘witch craze’ at the end of the 17th century. They felt that they had to seek out the evils that were lurking within their community. This led to more than 20 people being hanged as witches.
    • - This also caused them to practice holding Jeremiads, in order to root out the sin from their community.
    • - Another example of what this mindset caused was seen in the way Anne Hutchinson was handled. She was seen to be a rebellious and disobedient person, so she and her whole family were forced out of the community. When they were killed by Native American Indians, the Puritans in the community saw this as God’s judgment upon her.
    • - However, this kind of legalistic living caused a decline in religion in the second generation Puritans. As legalism and outward religion was forced on the children, they eventually rebelled and wanted nothing to do with it.
    • - In dealing with issues that are more social in nature, covenant theology also had a huge impact. First of all, the Puritans felt that as God’s people, God was “giving them the
    • nations as their inheritance.” This caused them to justify the practice of owning slaves, They first took slaves of Native American Indians, then from Barbados, and eventually from Africa. In believing in their supremacy as God’s chosen, slavery was perfectly normal and would help spur their success in the new nation.
  25. What is natural depravity?
    Natural depravity refers to human nature; that is, every human being is by nature corrupt and perverted as a result of Adam and Eve's fall. Calvin is unsparing in his description of natural depravity,the mind of man is so entirely alienated from the righteousness of God that he cannot conceive, desire, or design any thing but what is wicked, distorted, foul, impure, and iniquitous; that his heart is so thoroughly envenomed by sin that it can breathe out nothing but corruption and rottenness; that if some men occasionally make a show of goodness, their mind is ever interwoven with hypocrisy and deceit, their soul inwardly bound with the fetters of wickedness.It is because of natural depravity that human beings are, in Calvin's words, "the authors of their own destruction."
  26. What is Typology?
    -typology (Greek tupos, a.k.a. figura in Latin) in Christian theology and Biblical exegesis is a doctrine or theory concerning the relationship between the Old and New TestamentsTypology is also a theory of history, seeing the whole story of the Jewish and Christian peoples as shaped by God, with events within the story acting as symbols for later events - in this role God is often compared to a writer, using actual events instead of fiction to shape his narrative.[2] As Erich Auerbach points out in his essay "Figura", typological (figural) interpretation co-existed alongside allegorical and symbolic-mythical forms of interpretation.[11] But it was typology that was most influential as Christianity spread both in late Mediterranean cultures, but also in the North and Western Euoprean cultures.[12] Auerbach notes that it was the predominant method of understanding the Hebrew scriptures until after the Reformation—that is, that the Hebrew texts were not understood as Jewish history and law but were instead interpreted "as figura rerum or phenomenal prophecy, as a prefiguration of Christ".[13] Typological interpretation was a key element of Medieval realism, but remained important in Europe "up to the eighteenth century".[14]Further, typology was extended beyond interpretations of the Hebrew scriptures and applied to post-Biblical events, seeing them as "not the ultimate fulfillment, but [...] a promise of the end of time and the true kingdom of God."[15] Thus, the Puritans interpreted their own history typologically:[16]“Applied more liberally and figured more broadly, typology expanded into a more elaborate verbal system that enabled an interpreter to discover biblical forecasts of current events. Thus, the Atlantic journey of the Puritans could be an antitype of the Exodus of the Israelites; and the New England colony, a New Zion, to which Christ may return to usher in the Millennium. The first settlers were conservative, cautious typologists, but as Edward Johnson's Wonder-Working Providence of Sion's Saviour in New England (1654; composed c. 1650) demonstrates, by the 1640s New England's sacred errand into the wilderness and the approaching Apocalypse were accepted antitypes of sacred history.[17]”In this way, the Puritans applied typology both to themselves as a group and to the progress of the individual souls:“Applied more broadly, typology enabled Puritans to read biblical types as forecasting not just the events of the New Testament but also their own historical situation and experiences. In this way, individual Puritans could make sense of their own spiritual struggles and achievements by identifying with biblical personages like Adam, Noah, or Job. But this broad understanding of typology was not restricted to individual typing; the Puritans also interpreted their group identity as the fulfillment of Old Testament prophecy, identifying their community as the "New Israel."[18]”Typology also became important as a literary device, in which both historical and literary characters become prefigurations of later historical or literary characters.[19]
  27. Teaching Tool/ Film
    Watch: The Crucible (1996)
  28. American Literature
    Timeline: Beginnings to 1700:
    • (?)- Peoples
    • indigenous to the Americas orally perform and transmit a variety of literary
    • genres that include, among others, speeches, songs and stories.

    • 100 B.C.-1300 A.D.-
    • Anasazi communities inhabit southwestern regions

    • 1492- A.D.
    • Christopher Columbus arrives in the Bahamas- between 4 & 7 million Native
    • Americans estimated in present-day United states, including Alaska

    • 1493-t- Columbus,
    • “Letter to Luis de Santangel Regarding the First Voyage”

    • 1500- Native
    • American populations begin to be ravaged by European diseases (system
    • connected?)

    • 1514- Bartolome de
    • las Casas petitions Spanish crown to treat Native American peoples as humanely
    • as other subject populations.

    • 1519-21- cortez
    • conquers Aztecs in Mexico.

    • 1526- Spanish
    • explores bring first African slaves to South Carolina

    • 1539- First
    • printing press in the Americas set up in Mexico City, Hernando de Soto invades
    • Florida

    • 1542- t-Alvar Nunez
    • Cabeza de vaca, The relation of Alvar
    • Nunez Cabeza de Vaca

    • 1588-t- Thomas
    • Harriot, A brief and True Report of the New Found Land of Virginia

    • 1558-1603 Reign of
    • Elizabethe I

    • 1584-Walter Ralegh
    • lands on “island” of Roanoke; names it “Virginia” for Queen Elizabeth

    • 1588-t-Thomas
    • Harriot, A brief and True Report of the
    • New Found Land of Virgina

    • 1603-13- Samuel de
    • Champlain explores the Saint Lawrence River; founds Quebec

    • 1607- Jamestown is
    • established in Virginia- Powhatan confederacy saves colonists from starving;
    • teaches them to plant tobacco

    • 1619- twenty
    • Africans arrive in Jamestown on a dutch vessel as indentured servants

    • 1620- Mayflower
    • drops anchor in Plymouth harbor

    • 1621- First
    • Thanksgiving, at Plymouth

    • 1624-t- John Smith,
    • The General History of Virginia, New
    • England, and the Summer Isles

    • 1630-t- John
    • Winthrop delivers his sermon “A model of
    • Christian Charity”

    • 1630-43-
    • Immigration of English Puritans to Massachusetts Bay

    • 1630-50-t- William
    • Bradford writes “Of Plymouth Plantation”
    • (pub. 1856)

    • 1637-t- Thomas
    • Morton, New English Canaan

    • 1637- Pequot War -was an armed conflict between 1634–1638 between
    • the Pequot tribe
    • against an alliance of the Massachusetts
    • Bay, Plymouth,
    • and Saybrook colonies who were aided by their Native American allies
    • (the Narragansett and Mohegan tribes). Hundreds were killed; hundreds more were
    • captured and sold into slavery to the West Indies.[1] Other survivors were dispersed. At the end of the
    • war, about seven hundred Pequots had been killed or taken into captivity.[2] The result was the elimination of the Pequot as a viable polity in what is present-daySouthern New England.

    1638- Anne Hutchinson banished from Bay Colony for challenging Puritan beliefs

    1643-t- Roger Williams, A Key into the Language of America

    1650-t- Anne Bradstreet, The Tenth Muse

    1662-t- Michael Wigglesworth, The Day of Doom

    1673-1729-t- Samuel Sewall keeps his Diary (pub. 1878-1882)

    1675-78- King Philip’s War destroys power of Native American tribes in New England

    1681- William Penn founds Pennsylvania

    1682- -t- Mary Rowlandson’s Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration

    1682-1725-t-Edward Taylor continues his Preparatory Meditations (pub. 1939, 1960)

    • 1690-t- The New-England Primer- was the first reading primer designed for the American Colonies. It became
    • the most successful educational textbook published in 18th century America and it became
    • the foundation of most schooling before the 1790s.

    1692- Salem witchcraft trials

    1700-t-Robert Calef, More Wonders of the Invisible World

    1702--t-Cotton Mather, Magnalia Christi Americana
  29. What is the second literary period in the American Literature timeline?
    The Age of Franklin aka:

    Age of Reason

  30. How Long did the Age of Franklin last?
    1700-1800 - 18th century

  31. Key Authors/ Texts of the Age of Franklin
    John Woolman: Journal (1st half of 18th c.)

    • Hector St. John de Crevecoeur: Letters From an American Farmer (1782)
    • Benjamin Franklin: Autobiography (1771-1790)
    • The Federalist Papers (1787-88)
    • Jonathan Edwards: Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God (1741).
    • Thomas Paine: American Crisis Papers (#1: "These are the times that try men's souls") (1776).
    • Phillis Wheatley: Poems on Various Subjects (1773): "On Being Brought From Africa to America,"
    • "To His Excellency General Washington."
    • Thomas Jefferson: The Declaration of Independence, Notes on the state of Virginia (1781-82)
  32. Key Forms/ Genres
  33. Key Forms/ Genres from the literary age of Franklin
    • Pamphlets
    • Authobigraphy
    • Jeremiad
    • Aphorism
  34. What is a Pamphlet? Most famous Pamphlets from the Age of Franklin and why are they noted as important to society?
  35. What is an Autobiography? Why is Benjamin Franklin's authobriography so influential to society and the identity of the age of reason in American litearture?
  36. What is a Jeremiad?
    A sermon or another work that accounts for the misfortunes of an era as a just penalty for great social and moral evils, but hold out hope for changes that will bring a happier future. The structure of the jeremiad 1. Doctrine (text taken from Bible) A. Some proposition that people are pursued for their sins., B. Recital of afflications and review of history. 2. REasons ofr explication: exposition of the covenant-- A. Terms, B. Conditions, C. Duties 3. Applications or uses a. Provocations to vengeance, b. Proposed scheme of reformation, c. Imagined still more gory judgments unless the listeners acted upon preacher's recommendations. 4. Prescription
  37. What is Aphorism and how was it important to the literary age of Franklin and society?
    Aphorism is a principle expressed tersely in a few telling words or any general truth conveyed in a short and pithy sentence, in such a way that when once heard it is unliekly to pass from the memory.
  38. Key Historic Events/ People/ Dates during the literary Age of Franklin?
    Great Awakening (1726-1756)

    American Revolution (1775-83)

    George Washington (1789-97)

    Invention of cotton gin (1793)
  39. What is the Great Awakening? What dates did it take place? How did it function within the liteary age of Franklin?
  40. What is the American revolution? How long did it last? What is it revelvance to society during the literary age of franklin?
  41. Who is George Washington? Why was he an important figure in society during the liteary age of Franklin?
  42. Why was the cotton gin an important invention during the liteary age of franklin?
    The cotton gin increased the quantity of cotton that could be processed in a day. This made the widespread cultivation of cotton lucrative in the American
  43. Key Ideas Composing World Views during the liteary age of Franklin?
    deism

    via media
  44. What is deism,, and how does it relate to society in the liteary age of franklin?
    deism views the reason and logic rather than revelation or tradition, should be the basis of belief in God. Deists reject both organized and revealed religion and maintain that reason is the essential element in all knowledge. Deism has also come to be identified with the classical belief that God created but does not inervene in the world
  45. What is via media and what does it mean in society during the litearry age of franklin?
  46. Teaching tool/ Frilm for the litearry age of Franklin
    1776- PBS special on Benjamin Franklin

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