CH7_cognition

Card Set Information

Author:
nmdeasy
ID:
13266
Filename:
CH7_cognition
Updated:
2010-04-06 07:56:54
Tags:
PSY101 ch7 intelligence cognition
Folders:

Description:
Chapter 7
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user nmdeasy on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. The way in which information is processed and manipulated in remembering, thinking, and knowing
    Cognition
  2. Involves manipulating information mentally by forming concepts, solving problems, making decisions, and reflecting in a critical or creative manner.
    Thinking
  3. mental categories that are used to group objects, events, and characteristics.
    Concepts
  4. First, concepts allow us to _____; without them, each object and event in our world would be unique and brand new to us each time.
    Generalize
  5. Second, concepts allow us to ______ / compare experiences and objects.
    Associate
  6. Concepts aid _____ by making it more efficient so that we do not have to reinvent the wheel each time
    Memory
  7. Concepts provide ______ about how to react to a particular object or experience.
    Clues
  8. The ________ model emphasizes that when people evaluate whether a given item reflects a certain concept, they compare the item with the most typical item(s) in
    • that category and look for a “family resemblance” with that item's properties.
    • Prototypes
  9. ___________ means finding an appropriate way to attain a goal when the goal is not readily available
    Problem solving
  10. _________ involves setting intermediate goals or defining intermediate problems that put us in a better position for reaching the final goal or solution.
    Subgoaling
  11. ________ are strategies that guarantee a solution to a problem
    Algorithms
  12. ___________ come in different forms, such as formulas, instructions, and the testing of all possible solutions
    Algorithms
  13. ____________ are such shortcut strategies or guidelines that suggest a solution to a problem but do not guarantee an answer
    Heuristics
  14. In the real world, we are more likely to solve the types of problems we face by ______ than by _____.
    heuristics than by algorithms
  15. Heuristics help us to narrow down the possible__________ and to find one that works.
    solutions
  16. ____________ involves using a prior strategy and failing to look at a problem from a fresh, new perspective
    Fixation
  17. ________________occurs when individuals fail to solve a problem because they are fixated on a thing's usual functions
    Functional fixedness
  18. _______________ is the mental activity of transforming information to reach conclusions.
    Reasoning
  19. __________________ involves reasoning from specific observations to make generalizations
    Inductive reasoning
  20. A great deal of_________________ is the product of inductive reasoning
    scientific knowledge
  21. ____________ is reasoning from a general case that we know to be true to a specific instance
    deductive reasoning
  22. __________________ involves evaluating alternatives and choosing among them.
    Decision making
  23. _________ bias is the tendency to search for and use information that supports our ideas rather than refutes them
    Confirmation
  24. __________ bias is our tendency to report falsely, after the fact, that we accurately predicted an outcome.
    Hindsight
  25. ________ heuristic refers to a prediction about the probability of an event based on the ease of recalling or imagining similar events
    Availability
  26. The tendency to ignore information about general principles in favor of very specific but vivid
    Base rate fallacy
  27. The_____________ heuristic is to make judgments about group membership based on physical appearances or the stereotype of a group instead of available base rate
    representativeness
  28. ______________ means thinking reflectively and productively and evaluating the evidence
    Critical thinking
  29. being alert and mentally present for one's everyday activities.
    Mindfulness
  30. being receptive to other ways of looking at things
    Open-mindedness
  31. a characteristic of a person, the ability to think about something in novel and unusual ways and to devise unconventional solutions to problems
    Creativity
  32. produces many solutions to the same problem.
    Divergent thinking
  33. produces the single best solution to a problem
    Convergent thinking
  34. True or false: creative thinkers do mostly divergent thinking
    False: both
  35. when a group of people openly throw out a range of possible solutions to a problem, even some that might seem crazy
    Brainstorming
  36. ____ thinking occurs doing brainstorming
    Divergent thinking
  37. ________ moods are associated with narrow, analytical thinking
    Negative

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview