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What does Babesia cause?
hemolysis and anemia
What does Babesia look like?
Small blue dots on RBC
Who does Babesia affect?
Dogs, cattle, others
How is Babesia spread?
How is Babesia diagnosed?
Who is the natural reservoir for Cytauxzoon?
What does Cytauxzoon look like?
Found in RBCs, signet ring appearance, larger than M. haemofelis
Who does Cytauxzoon affect?
How is Cytauxzoon spread?
How is Cytauxzoon diagnosed?
Mostly found in necropsy
What is the mortality rate of Cytauxzoon?
Death 2-3 days after first clinical signs...more than 50% mortality even with best care
What is a protozoan?
- Bigger than bacteria
- Single-cell organism
What are some types of protozoans?
How are protozoans diagnosed?
- By finding organism on a blood smear
- Cytology of body tissues
- PCR or Ab tests
Where do parasitic protozoans live?
- Enteric: live in the GI tract
- Nonenteric: live ouside of the GI tract (blood protozoans)
How are blood protozoans spread?
by biting arthropods (ticks are most common)
What blood components do blood protozoans affect?
- Hemolytic anemia (affecting RBCs)
What are the clinical signs of Cytoauxzoon felis?
What is the treatment for Cyauxzoon?
If diagnosed early enough on a blood smear, can treat with antiprotozoal drugs
How are Leishmania transmitted?
by biting sand flies
Where does Leishmania reproduce?
What are the two forms of Leishmania?
visceral and cutaneous
How is Leishmania diagnosed?
- Serology for antibodies
- May see in macrophages (aspirate lymph node)
- Rarely seen in blood
How is Hepatozoon transmitted?
What are the clinical signs of Hepatozoon?
- Recurrent fever
- Weight loss
Hepatozoon is most commonly seen in what kind of animals?
- Concurrent infection
- Under 4 months of age
What does Hepatozoon cause?
How is Hepatozoon diagnosed?
- Leukocytosis with marked mature neutrophilia
- Increase in alkaline phosphatase
- Organisms in muscle biopsy
- May see in phagocytes
How are Trypanosomes transmitted?
Biting insects (kissing bugs, tse tse flies)
Describe Trypanosoma cruzi.
Large, extracellular parasites. Elongated, spindle-shaped cell with a single nucleus lying near the middle of the length.
What is the life cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi?
- Human or mammalian host infected when trypanosomes are defecated by insect bite
- Trypanosomes enter macrophages and proliferate
- Carried from initial sit through lymphatics to liver, lungs, spleen, bone marrow, myocardium
How does Trypanosoma cruzi affect dogs?
- Acute or chronic
- Can see heart abnormalities and death
How is Trypanosoma diagnosed?
- Blood smear (ear tip capillaries best)
- Buffy coat smear
- Organisms rarely seen if chronic
What does Plasmodium cause?
Malaria (mainly in humans, birds, primates)
What is the definitive host for Plasmodium?
man, non-human primate, rodent, birds, lizards
What is the vector for Plasmodium?
What part of the body does Plasmodium affect?
Liver (invades hepatocytes) and RBCs
What are the clinical signs for Plasmodium?
- Intermittent fever followed by chills...fever at regular intervals coincidental with release from RBCs
- Acute, life threatening
- Relapses may occur depending on species
How is Plasmodium diagnosed?
- See developmental stages in RBCs
- Clinical signs; individuals in or from endermic areas
What is on these RBCs?
Babesia (usually occurs in pairs)
What is on these RBCs?
Cytauxzoon (ring appearance)
What is on this monocyte?
Leishmania (seen in macrophages)
What is on this leukocyte?
What is this?