Blood Protozoans

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  1. What does Babesia cause?
    hemolysis and anemia
  2. What does Babesia look like?
    Small blue dots on RBC
  3. Who does Babesia affect?
    Dogs, cattle, others
  4. How is Babesia spread?
    By ticks
  5. How is Babesia diagnosed?
    • Blood smear
    • Serology
    • PCR
  6. Who is the natural reservoir for Cytauxzoon?
  7. What does Cytauxzoon look like?
    Found in RBCs, signet ring appearance, larger than M. haemofelis
  8. Who does Cytauxzoon affect?
    Domestic cats
  9. How is Cytauxzoon spread?
  10. How is Cytauxzoon diagnosed?
    Mostly found in necropsy
  11. What is the mortality rate of Cytauxzoon?
    Death 2-3 days after first clinical signs...more than 50% mortality even with best care
  12. What is a protozoan?
    • Bigger than bacteria
    • Single-cell organism
  13. What are some types of protozoans?
    • Flagellates
    • Amoebae
    • Ciliates
    • Coccidians
  14. How are protozoans diagnosed?
    • By finding organism on a blood smear
    • Cytology of body tissues
    • PCR or Ab tests
  15. Where do parasitic protozoans live?
    • Enteric: live in the GI tract
    • Nonenteric: live ouside of the GI tract (blood protozoans)
  16. How are blood protozoans spread?
    by biting arthropods (ticks are most common)
  17. What blood components do blood protozoans affect?
    • Hemolytic anemia (affecting RBCs)
    • Leukocytes
    • Platelets
  18. What are the clinical signs of Cytoauxzoon felis?
    • Fever
    • Anemia
    • Thrombocytopenia
    • Icterus
    • Splenomegaly
  19. What is the treatment for Cyauxzoon?
    If diagnosed early enough on a blood smear, can treat with antiprotozoal drugs
  20. How are Leishmania transmitted?
    by biting sand flies
  21. Where does Leishmania reproduce?
    in macrophages
  22. What are the two forms of Leishmania?
    visceral and cutaneous
  23. How is Leishmania diagnosed?
    • Serology for antibodies
    • May see in macrophages (aspirate lymph node)
    • Rarely seen in blood
  24. How is Hepatozoon transmitted?
  25. What are the clinical signs of Hepatozoon?
    • Recurrent fever
    • Lethargy
    • Depression
    • Weight loss
  26. Hepatozoon is most commonly seen in what kind of animals?
    • Concurrent infection
    • Immunosuppressed
    • Under 4 months of age
  27. What does Hepatozoon cause?
    Muscular disease
  28. How is Hepatozoon diagnosed?
    • Leukocytosis with marked mature neutrophilia
    • Increase in alkaline phosphatase
    • Organisms in muscle biopsy
    • May see in phagocytes
  29. How are Trypanosomes transmitted?
    Biting insects (kissing bugs, tse tse flies)
  30. Describe Trypanosoma cruzi.
    Large, extracellular parasites. Elongated, spindle-shaped cell with a single nucleus lying near the middle of the length.
  31. What is the life cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi?
    • Human or mammalian host infected when trypanosomes are defecated by insect bite
    • Trypanosomes enter macrophages and proliferate
    • Carried from initial sit through lymphatics to liver, lungs, spleen, bone marrow, myocardium
  32. How does Trypanosoma cruzi affect dogs?
    • Acute or chronic
    • Can see heart abnormalities and death
  33. How is Trypanosoma diagnosed?
    • Blood smear (ear tip capillaries best)
    • Buffy coat smear
    • Organisms rarely seen if chronic
  34. What does Plasmodium cause?
    Malaria (mainly in humans, birds, primates)
  35. What is the definitive host for Plasmodium?
    man, non-human primate, rodent, birds, lizards
  36. What is the vector for Plasmodium?
  37. What part of the body does Plasmodium affect?
    Liver (invades hepatocytes) and RBCs
  38. What are the clinical signs for Plasmodium?
    • Intermittent fever followed by chills...fever at regular intervals coincidental with release from RBCs
    • Acute, life threatening
    • Relapses may occur depending on species
  39. How is Plasmodium diagnosed?
    • See developmental stages in RBCs
    • Clinical signs; individuals in or from endermic areas
  40. Image Upload 1

    What is on these RBCs?
    Babesia (usually occurs in pairs)
  41. Image Upload 2

    What is on these RBCs?
    Cytauxzoon (ring appearance)
  42. Image Upload 3

    What is on this monocyte?
    Leishmania (seen in macrophages)
  43. Image Upload 4

    What is on this leukocyte?
  44. Image Upload 5

    What is this?
Card Set
Blood Protozoans
Lab Tech
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