# EBM Exam 1

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The flashcards below were created by user Rx2013 on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

1. Type of data in non-parametric tests
• nominal
• ordinal
2. Nominal data
• mutually exclusive
• yes/no
• male/female
3. Chi squared test
• two samples
• at least 40 observations (20 per group)
• nominal data
4. Fisher's Exact
• similar to chi squared but for smaller sample sizes
• two groups
• less than 5 per group
• usually for uncommon events
• for nominal data
5. Mantel-Haenszel
• three or more groups
• series of chi-squares
• totals are added up and overall chi-square is calculated
• for nominal data
6. McNemar's Test
• similar to chi-squared
• data is paired (there is a control or pt serves as their own control)
• for nominal data
7. Ordinal Data
• categorical
• ranked on a scale with no consistent distance between values
• ex. pain scale
8. Mann-Whitney U/Wilcoxon Rank Sum
• two groups
• ranks individual observations rather than values
• data values are assigned from lowest to highest
• the sum of the data is totalled at the bottem fo the chart
• (rank pain 1-6 and the group with lower number has better pain control)
9. Kruskal-Wallis
• for observational data
• for multiple comparisons
• if average ranks are close H0 is not rejected
• post hock analysis needed to determine difference between treatment groups
• Friedman's test is similar for 3 or more groups
10. Wilcoxon signed rank
• similar to paired t-test
• for paired data
• differences arranged in order of absolute value
• observations of 0 are excluded
• average rank is assigned
11. continuous data
• ratio or interval data
• placed on a numerical scale with infinite amount of values
• equal distance between those values
12. T-test
• "student's T-test"
• compares the mean of a population to the known mean
• 2 groups
• variance of both groups must be equal
• interval or ratio data
13. ANOVA
• for interval or ratio data
• 3 or more groups
14. ANCOVA
• for ordinal or ratio data
• similar to ANOVA but controls for covariates
• ex. study effect of bisphosphonates on osteoprosis, but age and exercise are also factors, control for these to see the difference the drug makes
15. Paired T-test
• for interval or ratio data
• compare the mean difference between 2 groups that are paired or matched
• can be used when the subject is their own control (cross over)
16. ANOVA for repeated measures
• similar to ANOVA but measures subjects under a different set of conditions in a repeated manner
• ex. pt with osteoporosis screened anually for next 5 years for changes in BMD
17. correlation
• measure of association between 2 variables
• r ranges from -1 to 1
• independant variable is x
• dependent variable is y
18. regression
• 0.9-1 = excellent correlation, probably predictive
• 0.7-0.9 = good correlation, may be predictive
• 0.6-0.7 = good correlation, may not be predictive
• <0.6 considered not predictive
19. Kaplan Meier survival analysis
• survival analysis as a function of time
• interval or ratio data
• time on the x axis
20. Survivial analysis censored vs. uncensored
censored means incomplete data, but is analagous to intent-to-treat
21. Post-Hoc Analyses
• performed after primary analysis when H0 has been rejected
• considered inferior to planned comparisons
• often easier to understand

### Card Set Information

 Author: Rx2013 ID: 132680 Filename: EBM Exam 1 Updated: 2012-02-03 22:35:17 Tags: Biostats Folders: Description: Biostats 3 Show Answers:

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