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Pancreatic insuffiency causes:
malabsorption of fat and fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K)
Abeta-lipoproteinemia leads to:
apoB deficiency- defect in chylomicron synthesis
What are incomplete proteins? List a few examples.
Foods that lack an essential amino acid and therefore will not support life: zein (corn), gelatin (bones, hooves)
What is pellagra?
- A vitamin deficiency disease caused by chronic lack of niacin (vitamin B3) in the diet. May be casued by decreased intake of niacin or tryptophan.
- Comes from diets with incomplete proteins (corn of milling), or today more commonly with people with chronic alcoholism and other persons with malabsorbtion problems.
- It is associated with the "3 D's": dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia
What is marasmus?
- Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM): malnutrition from almost all nutrients, both protein and calorie. Effects skeletal muscles (more severe than kwashorkor) and the liver (less severe than Kwashiorkor).
- Most common world wide- seen in neglected children in the US or secondary to other diseases.
- Characterized by loose skin, cachectic appearance and tissue and muscle wasting.
What is Kwashiorkor?
- Protein deprivation with adequate calories. Leads to severely affected protein sotres (primarily in the liver) and reduced regeneration of intestinal epithelial cells, which makes malabsorption worse. May come from early weaning and diets low in protein (Africa) or chronic diarrhea/chronic protein loss (US).
- Characterized by "swollen belly", non-pigmented hair, skin lesions.
- MEAL: malnutrition, edema, anemia, liver
What is the "obesity gene" and where does it act?
Leptin: acts on the hypothalamus
What is the function of ghrelin?
Acts on the hypothalamus during absence of food intake to increase appetite and reduce energy expendature.
During absence of food intake are the following hormones/etc increased or reduced?
Insulin, leptin, CCK, PYY
These four hormones act on the hypothalamus to decrease appetite and increase energy expendature
Insulin, leptinm CCK, PYY
List whether the following are short-term or long-term signals and where they act:
- Leptin: long-term, adipose tissue
- Insulin: Long term, pancrea, etc
- Ghrelin: short-term, GI
- Cholecystokinin: short term, GI digestion of fat
- Peptide YY: short term, GI, reduces appetitie
- Alpha-MSH: Short term, mult sites
What is the BMI range for:
- Normal: 18.5-24.9
- Overweight: 25-29.9
- Obese: 30 and up
What are some indicators of metabolic syndrome?
- Low HDL
- High TG
- Glucose resistance
- Insulin resistance