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  1. Microevolution
    • small changes and short term that occur in populations
    • IE antibiotics insecticides
  2. Evolutionary theory
    Understandingand application of the mechanisms of evolutionary change to biological problems
  3. 1700’s
    organisms never changed
  4. transformational evolution
    organism changed through time based on acquired characteristics in one’s lifetime passed on

    1809- Lamarck
  5. Darwin and Wallace
    Species change over time

    Divergent species share a common ancestor

    Mechanism for change is called natural selection
  6. variational evolution
    • Certain traits are selected for survival
    • Overtime the desirable traits would be seen- natural selection

    1850- Darwin and Wallace-
  7. Artificial selection
    man determines which traits are passed in offspring
  8. Adaptation
    • Process by which traits evolve
    • Trait more likely for organism to reproduce and survive

    Darwin was unable to prove in lab but could give examples in nature
  9. Population genetics
    study of genetic variation and causes within populations

    Natural variation needs to occur otherwise extinction

    Explain patterns/organization of genetic variation

    Origin/maintenance of genetic variation

    Understand the mechanisms that cause changes in allele frequencies in pops
  10. Allele frequency
    - relative proportion of alleles, measure genetic variation X1X2 X3

    • Allele freq-measured in Mendelian interbreeding pop
    • p=2NAA + NAa/(2N)
    • q=2Naa + NAa/(2N)
  11. Genotype frequency
    • - how genetic variation is distributed
    • X1X1,X1X2, X2X2
  12. Hardy Weinberg equilibrium
    • --Shows mathematically genetic variation
    • --Genetic makeup will remain same in population remaining the same
    • --Useful for predicting the approx genotype freq from it
    • allele freq
    • --Describes the conditions required for there to be no evolution in a pop
  13. Conditions to be met
    • Random mating
    • No mutations in genetic material
    • Large population size
    • No emigration/immigration
    • All genes/alleles have to have equal chance
  14. Disproved by
    • -Differential mate selection- nonrandom mating -Mutations occur all the time
    • -There are individual that can leave and enter populations- ---gene flow
    • -Certainalleles are advantageous and likely passed on in favor of lesser
    • -Certain chance events can reduce populations
    • ---genetic drift
    • ----Populationbottleneck
    • ----Prairiechicken-low genetic variation due to man
  15. How natural selection results in evolution
    • --Fitness-how well one phenotype is passed on compared to another phenotype
    • --Determined by relative rates of success and reproduction of individuals w/ that phenotype
  16. Stabilizing selection
    • - traits closer to the mean are selected for
    • IE birth weight
  17. Directional selection
    • - traits at an extreme are favored for
    • - mean will shift towards it
  18. Disruptive selection
    • - traits at both extremes are favored for
    • - bimodal
    • IE beak sizes-large for breaking hard seed, small for soft seeds
  19. Sexual selection
    - characteristics that help either better compete or more attractive for mates

    • IEbrighter colors, bigger horns, taller crests
    • ---zebra finches bills
    • ---male widowbirds long tails


    Thereare benefits and tradeoffs with reproduction
  20. Genetic variation maintenance
    • Neutral allele
    • sexual recombination-meiosis
    • mutations
    • frequency dependent selection- stable polymorphism
    • heterozygote advantage
    • geographically isolated sub species of a species-clinal
  21. Sexual recombination
    • Breaksup adaptive combinations of genes
    • Sex reduces rate at which females pass genes Dividing offspring into separate genders greatly reduces overall rate
  22. Heterozygote advantage
    • Two forms of the allele
    • Butterflies in rockies are tolerant to wider ranges of temp in am/pm
  23. Constraints on evolution
    Only alleles already in existence will help in adaptation --

    • Development processes
    • IEscathes rays- bodies shift to dorso-ventrally compressed to be bottom-dwellers

    Trade-offs--TTX resistent
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